HISTORY SCHEME OF WORK JSS TWO
||POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN NIGERIA
||Inter-relationships of some centres of Civilisation in pre-colonial Nigeria
||1. Relationships between peoples from different centres of Civilization in pre-colonial Nigeria:
· Ife/Benin Kanem
· Borno/Hausa States
· Igbo/Niger. Delta City State, etc.
2. Differences that existed between different centres of civilization in pre-colonial Nigeria:
· Political structure
· Culture and custom
· Religious beliefs etc.
3. Areas of interaction among peoples of centres of Civilisation in pre-colonial Nigeria:
· Trade and commerce
||REVISION AND EXAMINATION
TOPIC; DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES BETWEEN IFE AND BENIN KINGDOM
The differences between the two ethnic group include the following;
1]Ife had no direct army to prosecute wars while Benin kingdom had a very strong army that fough her battles.
2]Ife did not engage in so many wars but Benin empire engaged in so many wars and conquered so many territories,
3]Ife people speak Yoruba language while people of Benin Empire speak Edo as their major language
4]Ife was ruled by oduduwa the father of the Yoruba while Benin kingdom had ogisos as their set of rulers
5]Ife was known for bronze art works while Benin kingdom was known for bothe bronze and brass art works
6]Ife was regarded as the cradle of human existence while Benin was not ,
SIMILARITIES BETWEEN IFE AND BENIN EMPIRE
The following are the similarities between if eand Benin Empire;
1]They both depended on myths and legends in tracing their origins,so there were controversies among historians about their origins
2]Both had respected and popular work of arts
3]both had estatblished cultures that listed for centuries
4]both had centralized system of government
5]artifacts of both ife and benin were very significant in Nigeria history,
1] State the differences between ife and Benin kingdom in the pre-colonial period
2]state the similiarities between ife and benin kingdom in the pre-colonial period,
Discuss the differences between kanem –Borno
TOPIC; DIFFERENCES BETWEEN KANEM-BORNO EMPIRE AND HAUSA STATES
The following are the differences between kanem-borno Empire and Hausa states;
1] kanem borno origin can be traced to the maghumi people while that of the hausa states to bayajidda.
2]Kanem-brono people speak kanuri language while people of hausa states speak hausa
3]Islam was introduced to kanem borno around the 11th century while it was introduced to hausa states in the 15th century,
4]kanem-borno empire was located in the North-east of the present Nigeria while Hausa states were located in the North west of Nigeria
SIMILARITIES BETWEEN KANMEN-BORNO EMPIRE AND HAUSA STATES
1]both practiced centralized system of government
2]islam became the state religion of both kanem borno Empire and Hausa states
3]both had specific system of administering justice before the advent of islam
4] both engaged in trans-saharan trade across the sahara desert to booth their economy.
1] State the differences between kanem-borno and hausa states.
2]mention the similarities between kanem –borno and hausa states,
State two differences between igbo and Niger delta
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN IGBO AND NIGER DELTA CITY STATES
The following are the differences between igbo and Niger delta city states..are in south-south on map of
2]The igbo had age groups as part of their administrative structure while not all Niger delta states had such structure
3]The igbo people had igbo as their language while Niger delta city states had different languages
4]The igbo had similar culture but Niger delta states had different cultures
5] The igbo geopraphically were in the forest region while Niger delta city states were in the coastal area.
6] he igbo had purely non-centralized system of administration while some Niger delta city states had either centralized or non-centralized system of administration while some Niger Delta city states had either centralized or non-centralized structure.
SIMILARITIES BETWEEN IGBO AND NIGER DELTA CITY STATES
The following are the similarities between igbo and Niger delta city states;
1]both engaged in slave trade,
2]both had trade relations with each other,for example sea foods among the Niger delta city states in exchange for food crop with the igbo
3]They both worshipped different gods and deities before Christianity,
4]both had the Europeans influencing their culture through Christianity
1]State three difference between igbo and Niger delta city states
2] mention two similarities between igbo and Niger Delta city states
TOPIC; Differences and similiarities between oyo empire and nupe kingdom
Differences between oyo empire and Nupe kingdom
1] Oyo had its origin from oduduwa the father of Yoruba while Nupe had its origin from Bawo the sonof Bayajidda
2] Oyo people had Yoruba as their language while Nupe people had Nupe as their language
3]Alaafin was the political head of oyo empire but Etsu was the political head of Nupe
SIMILARITIES BETWEEN OYO EMPIRE AND NUPE KINGDOM
1]People from both oyo empire and Nupe kingdom normally have tribal marks
2]both had centralized mode of political structure.
3]both had strong military that fought their wars of conquest
4]both engaged in slave trdae
5]both had traditional mode of worship before islam and Christianity came
1]stae three differences between oyo empire and Nupe kingdom
2]mention two similiarities between oyo Empire and Nupe kingdom
Identify two differences in political structures
TOPIC; differences in political structure of different centres of civilization in pre-colonial Nigeria
MEANING OF POLITICAL STRUCTURES;;
Political structure implies the mode or method of governance used by a socity or a state,
The following are noticeable differences in the political structures of these pre-colonial centres.
1]centralized and non centralized system of government; cemtralized systems were used by empires and kingdoms,like oyo empire,Nupe kingdom,benin empire,hausa states and so on,
on the other hand,non centralized mode of governance was used by igbo,the idoma,and some Niger delta states like the Anang,Urhobo,etc
2]Distribution of power; In a non centralized states like igbo there was power sharing,the different groups had power to carry out their function,power was not concentrated at the centre
but in centralized system such as hausa states,oyo empire,benin empire,Nupe kingdom power was concentrated at the centre,
The king or the ruler controlled other arms of government with little or no power for people assisting him in lower levels of government,
3]Enthronement of rulers;; Different methods were used in installimg kings on the throne in the pre-colonialstates ,empire and kingdom,in Benin empire for instance, the Uzamas ahad the responsibility of installing the eldest son of the late oba as the new king,the oyo Mesi in oyo empire had similar function of enthroning kings [the Alaafins] but also had power to deposed them whenever necessary,in some centres,the throne was inherited ,while in others it was rotated among selected royal families,some did not have clear rules for the enthronement of new leaders.
4] Hierarchy in government; while some of these pre-colonial centres had good hierarchical structures particularly among the centralized stats,the hierarchy in most non-centralised states was not so clear
5] degree of participation in government; In centralized centres,like benin empire,oyo empire,Nupe kingdom for instances,power was in the hands of few individuals but in non centralized states ,power was shared among individuals
Identify two major ares of differences in political structurfes of pre-colonial people of Nigeria.
EXPLAIN culture and CUSTOMS
DIFFERENCES IN CULTURE AND CUSTOMS OF DIFFERENT CENTRES OF CIVILIZATION
Meaning of culture and custom;;;;
culture and customs are other major area where there were a lot of differences of civilization in Nigeria
such difference were very clear in the following;;
1] Marriage;;; Each major centres had different ways of contracting marriage or forming the new families,among the hausa state,marriage process was conducted using traditional methods and much later Islamic ,but in oyo Empire and some other centres the marriage process went according to gthe customs of the community
2]language; The languages of virtually all the centres were different
In hausa states,Hausa language was the dominant language while in the places like Oyo Empire and Ife ,Yoruba was dominant
The Niger delta city-states like Urhobo Anang,Ibibio and so on had their different languages,The igbo had a common language called Ibo though not without slight difference but they could still understand themselves,
3]Dressing;;; Each centre had different ways of dressing,this was applicable to the rulers,regalias,the regalia of an oba of Benin was different from that of Etsu of Nupe,The same applied to Alaafin of Oyo Empire in yorubaland and Obong of calabar in the Niger Delta,
furthermore,the dressing of Yoruba men and women was different from that of men and women fromhausa states,
4]songs;;;Each centre had peculiar songs and music for different occasions like installation of kings,rulers,naming,marriage and burial ceremonies,etc
5]musical instruments; centres of civilization in Nigeria had different musical instruments for different occasions;The musical instrument in the Hausa states included kakaki,goje and so on,The Oyo Empire also has musical instruments like ,Iya ilu,Omle,Dundu,etc,The igbo had musical instruments such as udu,ogene,Ekwe,etc
6]greetings; each centre had ways of greeting themselves,in old oyo empire,the subjects used to prostate themselves,in old oyo empire,the subjects used to prostrate for their king.and when the younger men were greeting their elders.
In Hausa states men would bend low to greet facing each other,shaking hands and touching chest particularly people of the same age,
Among the igbo,greeting was by handshake or bowing down
Identify two major areas of differences in culture and customs of pre-colonial people of Nigeria
State two differences in religious beliefs.
Differences in trade and economy;;;
1] Differences in commodities sold; Each centre had different commodities they sold ,this depended majorly on their geographical locations,
2] Differences inExchange systems;; some of them used cowry shells and salt as means of exchange,
3]differences in market; most of the centres had market days ,some had daily market while some fixed theirs at intervals of specific days
4]difference in weights and measures; Each had different ways of measuring quantity of commodities to be exchanged for money or other goods ,some commodities were measure in bags
5]differences inforeign trade partners; The coastal city states traded mainly with the Portuguese and the british ,Benin empire also traded with the Europeans exchanging slaves for foreign goods like gun,mirrors,etc
The hausa states and Kanem borno mtraded with the Arabs through trans atlantic trade. they also traded with people from Libya,mali,etc
Identify two major areas of diiferences in trade and economy of pre-colonial people of Nigeria.
State some areas of interaction among people of centres of civilization in pre-colonial Nigeria
Difference in religious beliefs will be explained in the following areas;;
1]place of worship;;Almost all the pre-colonial centres of civilization had different places of worship.those who worshipped river goddess did it near rivers,the three worshippers worshipped around the tree and son on
kingdom conquered through Islamic jihad changed their worship centre to mosques,while Niger delta states and Benin empire which later embraced Christianity worshipped in churches or their houses.
2] Deities;;;; each centre of civilization had the gods they worshipped,
The worship of ogun,sango,obatala were common in old oyo Empire,in Nupe,they worshipped Egungun and Igunnu at different places or shrines,Niger delta city states like Oron and Anang also had their different places of worship for gtheir gods,
3] Priest;;; As the worship of deities differed,so was the priest that conducted and led the worship,each deity had its own priest who was conducting and leading worshippers each time,it was time to worship the deity.so there were priests and chief priests of these deities in different centres of civilization
4]Consultation of oracles;; In many centres of civilization,some crtitical decisions were taken bhy consulting oracles,each centre had a ways of doing this,
in old oyo Empire ,sometimes ,the choice of the king from a royal family was based on result of consultation of ifa oracle,other communities in Nigeria in precolonial days also had different ways of making decisions through their deity,
Identify two major areas of differences in religious beliefs among pre-colonial people of Nigeria
STATE two differences in trade and economy
AREAS IN INTERACTION AMONG PEOPLE OF CENTRES OF CIVILIZATION IN PRE-COLONIAL NIGERIA
It is clear fact that all people of pre-colonial major centres of civilization interacted with themselves in various areas,The following are the major ares of interection of these cities,
TRADE AND COMMERCE; There were strong trade and commercial interactions among the people in pre-colonial period,f
first,the Hausa brought their hides and skins,cows,horses and leather works to oyo empire to get kolanut and other agricultural produce,
second,the igala and igbo people also had strong trade interaction with the help of river Niger,
furthermore,people from oyo Empire bough slaves from Nupe while people of yorubaland exchanged their palmkernal,yam,etc,for Nupe brasswork,cereals,bangles,etc,moreover,the igbo people exchanged agricultural produce for bonny,ijaw,and okrika’s fish and salt.
Trade relations made Hausa to settle in yorubalnad,igala settled in igbo,and so no
2]marriage; Intermarriage was so common among the people of pre-colonial Nigeria,
the marriage relationship served different purposes,to some of these people,they serve the purpose of seeking refuge while to others,they helped in reducing conflict and encouraging friendship among the tribes.
3]festival; festivals created opportunities for people of precolonial days to interact,for instances,the igunnu and egungun festivals which came from Nupe people later became important festivals in the yorubaland.
4]Religion;;; religion was a major avenue through which pre-colonial people interacted ,Islamic region brought strong interaction among the hausa,etc
1]Explain how precolonial centres interacted through trade and commerce
2]explain how pre-colonial centres interacted through marriage
3]Explain how pre-colonial centres interacted festivals
State two areas of interaction among people of centres civilization pre-colonial in Nigeria
AREAS OF INTERACTION AMONG PEOPLE OF CENTRES OF CIVILIZATION IN PRE-COLONIAL NIGERIA
1] WAR; Pre-colonial people did not only interact peacefully but also through violent way like war.
war was common in the pre-colonial days,This occurred due to the strong passion of some tribes to dominate,suppress and take over land and resources of other tribes due to benefits to be derived
wars,though negative and violent,helped major tribes and ethnic groups to interact with one another ,the conquerors way of life.
2] Slave trade; slaves trade also promoted and encouraged interaction among the precolonial Nigerian people,
3] diplomatic activities;; sometimes before some protracted wars ended ,warring parties needed to send emissaries to sign treaties,
this happened in 1650 when hausa states of kano and katsina signed a treaty to end series of wars,
3] migration; Migration of people in the precolonial days could be due to displacement by war ,disaster,famine,and desire for greener pastures
people of pre-colonial Nigeria migrated from one place to the other.,
1]Explain how war helped interactionsamong centres of civilization
Explain GHANA EMPIRE
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