Term : First Term

Week: Week 7

Class : JSS 1

Previous lesson : The pupils have previous knowledge of  

Classification of Drug; Drug Abuse

Topic :



  1. Definition of Pollution
  2. Types of Pollution
  3. Water Pollution
  4. Causes of Water Pollution
  5. Consequences/Effects of Water Pollution
  6. Control Measures of Water Pollution


Behavioural objectives :

By the end of the lesson, the learners will  be able to

  • Say the Meaning of Pollution
  • Mention Types of pollution
  • Explain water pollution
  • Mention four water pollutants
  • List how to prevent water pollution
  • Write out the hazards of water pollution


Instructional Materials :

  • Wall charts
  • Pictures
  • Related Online Video
  • Flash Cards

Methods of Teaching :

  • Class Discussion
  • Group Discussion
  • Asking Questions
  • Explanation
  • Role Modelling
  • Role Delegation


Reference Materials :

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
  • Workbooks




Definition of Pollution

The discharge of waste substances into the environment in quantities that are harmful to human beings is known as pollution. The materials and energy that cause pollution are called pollutants. Examples of pollutants are Acids, Soaps and Detergents, Alcohol, Oils, Chemical compounds such as Lead, Sulphide, fertilizers, herbicides, refuse and sewage etc. making the environment undesirable, unpleasant, threatening the health and existence of living organisms including humans.

Types of Pollution

There are mainly three types of pollution namely:

(i) Water pollution;

(ii) Air pollution;

(iii) Land or Soil pollution


Water Pollution

Water pollution can be defined as the discharge of harmful waste substances into a body of water.

When water loses its natural, physical properties, and becomes coloured with offensive odour and bad taste; the water is said to be polluted.

Causes of Water Pollution

The causes of water pollution are water pollutants such as:

1. Domestic Wastes: These are wastes from homes or surroundings which consist of soap and detergents used in washing clothes, plates, refuse dumped beside the river or stream, dung from animals such as chickens, dogs, goats, cows and human faeces left on land may be washed into the river/stream.

2. Industrial Wastes: These are wastes from industries or factories such as acids, e.g. hydro-cyanic acid present in the water squeezed out from cassava in the garri processing industry soaps and detergents used in washing up some industrial equipment, alcohol which may be washed out from bottles in the breweries.

Water pollution - Industrial water pollutionIndustrial Water Pollution

3. Agricultural Wastes: Agricultural activities such as the use of fertilizers on the soil and pesticides on plants can be washed into the water bodies through rain causing water pollution.

4. Oil Spillage: This occurs during oil drilling, bunkering and oil tanker accidents. Oil from these sources can run into water bodies which result into water pollution.

 5. Indiscriminate dumping of sewage and refuse into water bodies.


Consequences/Effects of Water Pollution

Water pollution occurs when water is no longer supporting the lives of living things and the consequences of the pollution are

(i) Water pollutants can change the colour of the water body.

(ii) Sewage dump into water bodies can cause dysentery, salmonella and hepatitis, diarrhea, etc.

(iii) When water is polluted, it becomes unfit for drinking

(iv) If rivers are polluted, fish will die in large numbers

(v) Polluted water will affect the economy of fishermen in the country

(vi) Swimmers will no longer enjoy their recreation, polluted water could be disastrous.

Control Measures of Water Pollution

Water pollution maybe controlled through the following ways:

(i) There should be awareness on the dangers of pollution which is the most important method of reducing pollution.

(ii) Treating sewage in sewage plant before emptying the effluent into the river and sea.

(iii) Maximum precautions must be taken to prevent oil spillage.

(iv) Building nuclear waste silos for storing radioactive wastes so that ground water does not becomes contaminated.

(v) Treating industrial wastes before emptying them into water bodies.

(vi) Do not allow engine oil, kerosene or petrol to get into fresh water supply.

(vii) Fishermen should stop the use of Gammalin 20 on water bodies to kill fish.






The topic is presented step by step


Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics


Step 2.

He introduces the new topic


Step 3:

The class teacher corrects the pupils when and where the needs arise .




  1. State five effects of water pollution.
  2. How can water pollution be controlled?
  3. Write out the Meaning of Pollution
  4. Mention four  Types of pollution
  5. Explain water pollution
  6. Mention four water pollutants
  7. List two ways by which water pollution can be prevented prevent
  8. Write out two hazards of water pollution


The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.

He or she does the necessary corrections when and where  the needs arise.



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