1. Introduction to Volleyball
  2. History and Development of Volleyball
  3. Basic Skills and Techniques in Volleyball
  4. Rules and Regulations in Volleyball
  5. Officials of Volleyball and their Functions
  6. Facilities and Equipment (court and dimension) Used in Volleyball
  7. Common Injuries in Volleyball
  8. Values of Volleyball

Introduction to Volleyball

Volley ball was invented by William Morgan in America in the year 1895. The International Volleyball Association was formed in 1947. Volleyball became an Olympic game in 1964 and was first played at the Olympic Games in Tokyo, Japan.

The Nigeria Volleyball Federation was formed in 1970 with Dr. J.C. Omoruwa as its first chairman. It is a game played between two teams of 6 players each. It can be played by both sexes.

Basic Skills and Techniques in Volleyball

The following are basic skills and techniques in volley ball:

  1. The service (under Arm, Tennis, overhead and windmill service).
  2. The volleying
  3. Digging
  4. Spiking
  5. Blocking
  6. Set-up
  7. Dink shot.

Basic skills and techniques in volleyball

Rules and Regulations of Volleyball

The rules and regulations of volley ball include the following:

  1. All matches consists of 3 out of 5 games
  2. The choice of court or service is decided by a toss of a coin.
  3. Teams change courts after every game or set except in the deciding game when teams change courts at 8 points.
  4. The game is started with a service behind the base line.
  5. A player is not allowed to play the ball twice, in succession; however a team can play thrice in succession.
  6. A ball is out when there is a double foul.
  7. A service is retaken if there is a double foul.
  8. A game is won when one team leads by 2 points with 25 points aggregate.

Note: Any team can score a point whether the team is serving or receiving.

Officials of Volleyball and their Functions

The following are the officials of volley ball and their functions:

  1. One Referee
  2. One Umpire
  3. One Scorer
  4. Two Linesmen

The Referee

  1. He has authority over players and officials
  2. His decision is final.
  3. He penalizes violations made by players, captains and coaches.

The Umpire

  1. He is the assistant to the referee.
  2. He supervises the rotational order and position of the players
  3. He authorizes substitution requested
  4. He keeps the official time of time-outs.
  5. He notifies the referee of any crossing the centre line.

The Scorer

  1. He keeps the record of the players name and numbers.
  2. He records the scorers.
  3. He notes all time-outs
  4. He supplies the referee with relevant information at all times.

The Linesmen

  1. They are placed by the base line diagonally opposite each other to watch and indicate with their flags, when the ball is out or in.

Note: In volley ball game, all line ball is good.

Facilities and Equipment Used in Volleyball

The Facilities: The court, the net support and the referee’s stand.

The Equipment: The ball, the net, whistle, score board, score sheets, and wear for players.

Court/Pitch Specification (Dimension)

Court – Rectangular in shape.

Dimension is 18m by 9m.

Height of the net (man)2.43m. (woman) – 2.24m

Length of front court – 3m.

Length of back court – 6m.

Common Injuries in Volleyball

The following injuries are common in the game of volley ball:

  1. Fracture (wrist, ankle, bones of the fore arm)
  2. Dislocation
  3. Muscle cramp
  4. Strain
  5. Blindness from the hot shot

Values of Volleyball

The values of volley ball include the following:

  1. It helps in the development of safety skill and habits.
  2. It aids physical fitness and strength development.
  3. The game of volleyball provides a source of income and competition.
  4. It helps to boost mental accuracy and coordination.
  5. It is played for fun and enjoyment.


  1. Who invented volley ball game?
  2. What is the dimension of a volley ball court?
  3. How many players play the game of volleyball?
  4. How many players make a team?



  1. History and Development of Soccer
  2. Basic Skills and Techniques in Soccer
  3. Rules and Regulations of Soccer
  4. Officials and Regulations of Soccer
  5. Facilities and Equipment Used in Soccer
  6. Common Injuries in Soccer
  7. Values of Soccer

History and Development of Soccer

The true origin of soccer is difficult to determine but soccer otherwise known as football could be linked to the Greeks and Romans. The game was later brought to England by the Romans Soldiers. In 1863, the London Football Association established the first set of rules of the game. The English called it “Association Football”, while the Americans called it “soccer”.

The Nigeria Football Association (N.F.A) was established in 1945. The body responsible for the rules of the game, is F.I.F.A, that is, the Federation of International football Association. It was founded in 1904 in Zurich, Switzerland.

Soccer is an international game played by 2 teams of 11 players aside. Substitutes of 7-11 players are allowed depending on the governing body but in an international competition or championship maximum of three players are allowed as substitutes. A player can play the ball with any part of the body except the hand and arms. However, this does not apply to the goal keeper. It is started with a “kick off” in the centre circle of a rectangular field having goal areas, penalty areas, corner areas, and the goal posts.

Ball games - soccer

Basic Skills and Techniques in Soccer

Basic skills and techniques involved in soccer are;

  1. Kicking.
  2. Passing.
  3. Dribbling.
  4. Throw-in.
  5. Trapping.
  6. Heading.
  7. Tackling.
  8. Goal-keeping

Rules and Regulations of Soccer

(a) The 10 penal offences are

  1. Kicking or attempt to kick an opponent
  2. Tripping an opponent
  3. Jumping at an opponent
  4. Charging an opponent dangerously
  5. Holding an opponent by hand or arm
  6. Striking or attempt to strike an opponent
  7. Handling the ball
  8. Pushing an opponent by hand or arm
  9. Using offensive, insulting or abusive language
  10. Tackle an opponent in a dangerous manner

Ball games - Rules and regulations of soccer - yellow card

(b) Off-side rule: A player is said to be off-side when he is nearer to his opponent goal line than the ball unless there are two or more defenders (apart from goal keeper) nearer their own goal line than him.

(c) Penalty Kick: This is awarded when any of the 10 penal offences is committed by the defending team inside the “box eighteen”.

(d) Duration of Game: Two equal periods of 45minutes each. The interval at half time is 15 minutes


Soccer Officials and their Functions

  1. The referee
  2. Two assistant referees
  3. Match commissioner
  4. Reserve referee

Soccer officials and their functions - The Referee

The Referee

  1. Takes full control of the game
  2. Cautions players and keep a record of the game
  3. His decision is final
  4. Acts as time keeper and enforces rules and regulation of the game
  5. Rejects unsuitable match equipment.

The Assistant Referee

He gives a signal to the referee;

  1. when the ball is out of play.
  2. when there is a corner.
  3. when a side is entitled to the throw-in.
  4. when a player is off-side.

Facilities and Equipment Used in Soccer

(i) The field

Maximum Minimum
Length 120m 110m
Width 90m 75m

(ii) The ball

(iii) Players shoes/boot, jersey, stockings, short, shin guard.

(iv) Goal post – Length 7.32m, Height 2.44m.

(v) Goal net.

(vi) Technical Equipment – whistle, red and yellow cards.

Common Injuries in Soccer

  1. Fracture (wrist, ankle, bones of the fore arm)
  2. Dislocation
  3. Muscle cramps
  4. Strain
  5. Bruises

Values of Soccer

The following are the values of soccer:

  1. Development of safety skill and habits.
  2. Physical fitness and strength development.
  3. It helps in generating income.
  4. It boosts mental accuracy and coordination.
  5. Soccer is played for the fun and enjoyment.


  1. What is another name for soccer?
  2. List the eleven players with their full description.



  1. Definition of Contact Sports
  2. Examples of Contact Sports
  3. Benefits of Contact Sports
  4. Basic Skills and Techniques in Contact Sports

Definition of Contact Sports

Contact sports are sports that emphasize or require physical contact between players. Some sports such as martial arts are scored based on impacting an opponent, while others include rugby and football which require tackling of players.

Contact sports

Examples of Contact Sports

The following are examples of contact sports:

  1. Wrestling
  2. Judo
  3. Karate
  4. Boxing
  5. Football
  6. Rugby

Benefits of Contact Sports

The benefits of contact sports include the following:

  1. It enhances and promotes stamina
  2. It is for fun and enjoyment
  3. It promotes inter-personal-relationship among athletes
  4. It is used as an entertainment
  5. It serves as means of livelihood for participants
  6. It improves speed and promotes physical fitness and flexibility

Basic Skills and Techniques in Contact Sports

Basic Skills in Wrestling

The following are skills in wrestling:

  1. Hold or grips
  2. Throws
  3. Stance.
  4. Attacks.
  5. Offensives and defensives.
  6. Escapes

Basic Skills in Judo

The following are skills in judo:

  1. Stance
  2. Gripping
  3. Movement
  4. Falling

Techniques in Judo

The following are techniques used in judo:

  1. Nage – waza (standing and throwing)
  2. Katama – waza (grapping)
  3. Atame – waza (striking)


  1. Describe contact sports.
  2. List five examples of contact sports.
  3. What are the benefits of contact sports?


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  1. Definition of Non-contact Sports
  2. Examples of Non-Contact Sports
  3. Benefits of Non-contact Sports
  4. Basic Skills and Techniques in Non-Contact Sports

Definition of Non-contact Sports

Non-contact sports are those sports where participants should have no possible means of impact, such as sprinting, swimming, darts, snookers where players use separate lanes or take turns of play.

Non-contact sports

Examples of Non-contact Sports

The following are examples of non-contact sports:

  1. Darts
  2. Snooker
  3. Chess
  4. Swimming
  5. Gymnastics
  6. Tennis
  7. Table tennis
  8. Badminton

Benefits of Non-contact Sports

The benefits of non-contact sports include the following:

  1. It brings about critical and constructive thinking
  2. It relaxes the muscles of the body
  3. There is greater control over injuries risk
  4. Help in the development of speed and free movement of the body.
  5. Participating in non-contact sports, could wipe stress and live a healthy life.
  6. It exercises all parts of the body
  7. It is for fun and entertainment

Basic Skills and Techniques in Non-contact Sports

The basic skills in non contact sports include the following:

Swimming Skills Performance (Styles)

The following skills are used in swimming:

  1. Front crawl
  2. Breast stroke
  3. Butterfly
  4. Back stroke
  5. Earliest swimming style, dog paddle
  6. Fastest swimming style, front crawl
  7. Style that can be performed on land, front crawl

Basic Skills and Techniques in Non-contact Sports - Swimming skills performance styles

Basic Skills in Gymnastics

The basic skills in gymnastics include;

  1. The stance
  2. The approach run or run up
  3. The take-off
  4. The flight or clearance
  5. The landing
  6. The recovery


  1. Describe non-contact sports.
  2. List five examples of non-contact sports.
  3. What are the benefits of non-contact sports?
  4. Explain why you would prefer non-contact sports to contact sports.
  5. List other five non-contact sports apart from the one given above.



  1. Safety Measures in Contact Sports
  2. Safety Measures in Non-contact Sports

Safety Measures in Contact Sports

  1. The playground must be kept clean; that is, remove all dangerous materials on the field e.g. stones, broken bottles, pegs, etc.
  2. Do not perform or play on a slippery ground.
  3. Warm-up properly before performing any exercise.
  4. Apparatus must be arranged and inspected before use.
  5. Avoid wearing high heel shoes or too heavy boots.
  6. Participants’ dresses/sport wears should be smart and loose enough to allow free movement of the body.

Safety Measures in Non-contact Sports

The following are safety measures in non-contact sports:

Safety Measures in Gymnastics

Accident often occurs during gymnastics. To reduce accident therefore, certain  safety precaution must be taken.

  1. Have a proper warm up before activities
  2. Start from simple to complex
  3. Apparatus must suit the activity.
  4. Enough landing foam to prevent jars and injuries during vaulting
  5. Never carry out any activity without instruction
  6. Check the activity areas and be sure they are free from hazards
  7. Wear the correct customer ( sports wears)
  8. Master the fundamental skills before performing
  9. Ask questions when in doubts
  10. Practice skills within your capacity
  11. Always follow instructions
  12. Avoid wearing ornament during activities

Safety Measures in Aquatic Sports

In aquatic sports, the following are important safety measures:

  1. Swimmers should take a shower before swimming to adjust the body to the water temperature
  2. Never use the pool where there is no life guard
  3. Beginners should start from the shallow end of the pool
  4. Learners should obey and follow instructions
  5. There should be no running around to avoid slip and fall
  6. Avoid the use of ornaments such as neck lace
  7. No rough play such as pushing people into water
  8. There should be proper warm up to stimulate the body for vigorous actions in the water.


  1. Mention five safety measures in contact sports.
  2. Give two safety measures in each of the following non-contact sports: (i) Snooker (ii) Darts (iii) Swimming (iv) Gymnastics



  1. Definition of Health
  2. Aspects of Health
  3. Determinants of Health
  4. Characteristics of a Healthy Person
  5. Characteristics of a Physically Fit Person

Definition of Health

Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being of an individual and not merely the absence of diseases or infirmities. Health may be regarded as a balance of physical, mental and social aspect of life in a human being.

Aspects of Health

Health is generally classified under two aspects, namely, physical health and mental health.

(i) Physical health: This simply means a condition of overall well-being, that is, when the body is functioning as it was designed to function. Physical health is the freedom from diseases or abnormality and soundness of the body.

(ii) Mental Health: Mental health is a state of emotional and behavioural well being. It is all about how the individual thinks, feels and behaves. Having good mental health helps on lead a happy and healthy life.

Determinants of Health

There are four general determinants of health, namely:

  1. Heredity
  2. Environment
  3. Life style
  4. Health care services

Characteristics of a Healthy Person

The characteristics of a healthy person include the following:

  1. Ability to work without easily fatigued
  2. Ability to comprehend mental fatigue
  3. Resistance to infection

Characteristics of a Physically Fit Person

The characteristics of a physically fit person are:

  1. Freedom from diseases
  2. Norma system and body function
  3. Health of mind and emotion
  4. Freedom from correctable physical defect


  1.  What is health?
  2.  List and explain two aspects of health.



  1. Meaning and Types of Sewage and Refuse
  2. Methods of Sewage Disposal
  3. Methods of Refuse Disposal


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Sewage and refuse disposal

Meaning of Sewage and Refuse

Refuse refers to all solid wastes such as pieces of paper leaves, garbage, ashes and dead animals while sewage refers to liquid wastes such as urine, kitchen wastes or water from laundry.

Types of Sewage

There are basically three types of sewage, namely:

  1. Domestic Sewage
  2. Industrial Sewage
  3. Storm Sewage

Methods of Sewage Disposal

  1. Open dump
  2. Water system
  3. VIP latrine – Ventilated Improved Pit latrine
  4. Bucket latrine
  5. Pit-hole latrine

Methods of Refuse Disposal

1. Open dump

Advantage: It is cheap to water system

2. Composting

Advantage: Decomposed materials (without toxic materials) may serve as fertilizers

Disadvantage: Turning may be laborious and odour offensive

3. Incineration

There are modern and local ones and are of different types.

Advantage: Local technology can be used

Disadvantages: If not properly managed surrounding air may be polluted

4. Sanitary land fills: An excavated or land depression area is needed wherein refuse gabage are thrown and covered up with solid or dust.


(i) It help to reclaim waste land

(ii) It does not require high technology

(iii) It is not expensive

Disadvantage: Land to be used may be difficult to come by.


  1. Differentiate sewage disposal from refuse disposal.
  2. What are the methods of sewage disposal?
  3. Why do you think open dump should not be recommended as a method of refuse disposal?
  4. What are the determinants of health?



  1. What is Water?
  2. Sources of Water Supply
  3. Qualities of Good Water Supply
  4. Uses of Water

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What is Water?

Chemically a molecule of water is composed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom held together by covalent bonds. Water is precious to man’s existence as it is needed in agriculture, sports, industry, and domestic affairs. Water may be hard or soft. Hard water is not good economically as more soap is needed to form lather. When water is free from mineral salts, such water is called soft water as it dissolves soap quickly.

Sources of Water Supply

The two major sources of water supply to man are:

  1. Surface Water
  2. Ground Water


Surface Water Supplies

Surface water supply are abundant and easily accessible. They are however prone to pollution from human transport, industrial, agricultural and domestic wastes.

Sources of surface water supply include the following:

  1. Rain water
  2. River water
  3. Lakes, ponds and streams


Ground Water Supplies

Ground water supply are lodged in the earth. They are not easily accessible, except through the use of wells, boreholes and taps. Ground water are the cleanest sources of water.

Sources of ground water supply include the following:

  1. Shallow well
  2. Deep well.


Qualities of Good Water Supply

  1. It must be odourless
  2. It must be tasteless
  3. It must be colourless
  4. It must be free from pathogens
  5. It must contain acceptable mineral composition


Uses of Water

Water is used for the following:

  1. For drinking
  2. For bathing for healthy living
  3. For cooking
  4. For washing of clothes
  5. For cleaning and flushing of toilets
  6. As a means of transportation
  7. Used for sporting activities. E.g. swimming, water pool, etc.



  1. List five sources of water supply.
  2. List three qualities of good water.
  3. What are the uses of water?