INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION

INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION

CONTENT

  1. Definition of Physical Education
  2. Objectives of Physical Education
  3. Components of Physical and Health Education
  4. Scope/Branches of Physical Education
  5. Definition of Health
  6. Meaning of Health Education
  7. Objectives of Health Education
  8. Scope/Branches of Health Education

 

Definition of Physical Education

Physical education can be defined as the education that deals with the all round development of an individual through carefully selected physical activities. It can also be described as an integral part of the total process of education that makes use of selected and properly conducted physical activities in the development of the whole individual.

 

Objectives of Physical Education

The objectives of physical education include the following:

(i) Physical development

(ii) Mental development

(iii) Social development

(iv) Emotional development

(v) Skills development

 

Components of Physical and Health Education

Physical and health education is made up of two broad subjects, namely;

(i) Physical education

(ii) Health education

 

Scope/Branches of Physical Education

The scope/branches of physical education are as follows:

(i) Sports and games

(ii) Aquatic sports

(iii) Gymnastics

(iv) Athletics

(v) Martial arts

(vi) Safety education

(vii) Recreation

(viii) Rhythm and dance
Definition of Health

Health according to World Health Organisation (W.H.O) defined health as a state of complete physical, social, mental well-being of an individual not merely the absence of diseases or infirmities.

 

Meaning of Health Education

Health education consist of all learning experiences which influence the individual’s knowledge, habits and attitudes towards the promotion and maintenance of one’s health, that of family and the community.

 

Objectives of Health Education

The objectives of health education include the following:

(i) To provide beneficial health information.

(ii) To modify health behaviour.

(iii) Promotion of health services available/uses of health services available.

(iv) To influence cultural norms , values superstitious beliefs.

 

Scope/Branches of Health Education

The scope/branches of health education are as follows:

(i) Drug education

(ii) Sex education

(iii) Consumer health

(iv) Personal and community health

(v) Personal hygiene

(vi) First aid.

 

EVALUATION

  1. What is physical education?
  2. List five objectives of physical education.
  3. Identify five scopes of health education.
  4. List five physical activities.

PHYSICAL FITNESS AND BODY CONDITIONING

CONTENT

  1. Meaning of Physical Fitness
  2. Components of Physical Fitness
  3. Characteristics of a Physically Fit Person
  4. Importance of Physical Fitness

 

Meaning of Physical Fitness

Physical fitness is the ability of an individual to perform his daily work well without feeling too tired and still have reserve energy in case of emergency.

 

Components of Physical Fitness

The components of physical fitness are:

(a) Health related components

(b) Skills or performance related components

 

(a) The health related components are:

(i) Muscular power

(ii) Muscular strength

(iii) Muscular endurance

(iv) Cardio vascular respiratory endurance

(v) Flexibility

(vi) Resistance to diseases

(b) The performance related components include

(i) Coordination

(ii) Muscular power

(iii) Speed

(iv) Agility

(v) Accuracy

(vi) Balance

(vii) Body composition

Components of physical fitness

Flexibility and power are essential for health and very important for skills performance.

 

Characteristics of a Physically Fit Person

The characteristics of a physically fit person are as follows:

(i) Physical characteristics: He has organic vigour, organic base, is active, is skilled in some physical activities and enjoys a sense of well-being.

(ii) Social characteristics: He understands and respects the rights of other people, practices service above self and makes satisfactory group adjustments.

(iii) Mental characteristics: He has a healthy outlook of life, has good sense of judgment, thinks independently and constructively and is resourceful.

(iv) Emotional characteristics: He has stability and self-control and faces reality in an honest manner.

 

Importance of Physical Fitness

(i) Physical fitness promotes sense of well-being.

(ii) It improves stamina.

(iii) It prevents both major and minor illnesses.

(iv) The speed of recovery from illness is enhanced.

EVALUATION

  1. What is physical fitness?
  2. List five components of health related and performance related physical components
  3. Mention two importance of physical fitness.
  4. List five components of physical fitness.
  5. Mention factors that contribute to physical fitness.
  6. Differentiate between health related and performance related physical fitness
  7. How would you identify a physically fit person?

PHYSICAL FITNESS AND BODY CONDITIONING PROGRAMME

CONTENT

  1. Exercises to Develop Strength, Endurance and Flexibility
  2. Safety Precautions While Performing Exercises

 

Exercises to Develop Strength, Endurance and Flexibility

The following exercises are designed to develop strength, endurance and flexibility:

1. Strength development: Pull up, press up, knee bend, sit up, weight training.

2. Endurance development: Circuit training (running on the spot— squat thrust—- press up—Harvard step up—-tread mill—-windmill—-squat jump—-sit up)

3. Flexibility development: Windmill, duck walk, hurdle stretch, bending from the trunk, bending the neck sideways, bending forward and backward, trunk flexion standing, trunk extension.

 

Safety Precautions While Performing Exercises

The following safety precautions should be observed while performing exercises:

(i) You must know your limitation.

(ii) The person must not force himself to perform activity he cannot perform.

(iii) There must be general warm up before performing activities.

(iv) Students should be allowed to practice for some time before testing.

(v) Target should be set on each activity.

(vi) Activity must be appropriate to the age and weight of the student.

(vii) Activity must be stopped when fatigue sets in.

 

EVALUATION

  1. List 3 activities to develop endurance.
  2. As a coach, how would you promote flexibility as a vital tool of top performance in sports.

ASSIGNMENT

(a) Identify exercises that can be used to develop health related physical components.

(b) List exercises that can be used to develop performance related physical components.

RECREATION, LEISURE AND DANCE ACTIVITIES

CONTENT

  1. Definition of Recreation
  2. Definition of Leisure and Rest
  3. Definition of Dance
  4. Components of Recreation
  5. Types of Activities Under the Two Components of Recreation

 

Definition of Recreation

Recreation can be defined as participation in sporting activities during our leisure time. It is a voluntary participation in which no monetary gain is expected.

It is done after one’s daily job, usually for fun, enjoyment, social and physical benefits.

 

Definition of Leisure and Rest

Leisure is one’s free time and this embraces what one does to gainfully occupy his free time.

Rest is a state of being free from activity and disturbance. It helps to prevent tension.

The best state of rest is sleep.

 

Definition of Dance

Dance is expressive movement of turning twisting and rolling of the body (parts) to conform with the rhythm of a sound, beat or music. It is a way of expressing our inner feelings of joy and happiness.

 

Components of Recreation

Recreation covers a wide range of activities which can be grouped into:

(i) Indoor recreational activities.

(ii) Outdoor recreational activities.

 

Types of Activities Under the Two Components of Recreation

Indoor Activities

These are activities that are performed inside the house, hall or generally under a roof.

Examples include:

(i) Playing music

(ii) Drawing and painting

(iii) Sewing

(iv) Watching television

(v) Playing of indoor games such as cards, Ludo, Scrabble and Chess

(vi) Reading or writing for pleasure, dancing

(vii) Singing

Outdoor Activities

There are activities that are performed outside or in the open such as parks, game reserves, beach and sports field.

Examples are:

Mountaineering, playing outdoor games, walking, jogging, swimming, cycling, fishing, camping, picnicking, gardening, canoeing, horse riding, hiking, etc.

 

 EVALUATION

  1. What is recreation?
  2. List two components of recreation.
  3. Differentiate between leisure and rest.

ASSIGNMENT

  1. In a tabular form outline five outdoor and indoor recreational activities.
  2. State three reasons you would prefer indoor recreational activities to outdoor activities.

BENEFITS OF RECREATION AND DANCE

CONTENT

  1. The Benefits of Recreation and Dance

 

The Benefits of Recreation and Dance

The following are the benefits of recreation and dance:

(i) They are an unconscious use of leisure time.

(ii) They reduce juvenile delinquency, crimes.

(iii) They create room for social integration.

(iv) They help to develop socially acceptable behaviour.

(v) They help in physical development, physical fitness.

(vi) They give an opportunity for the development of sports skills.

(vii) They provide an opportunity for the release of tension.

(viii) They provide the forum for fun and enjoyment.

 

EVALUATION

  1. What is recreation?
  2. List two components of recreation.
  3. Differentiate between leisure and rest.

ATHLETICS: SHOT PUT

CONTENT

  1. Definition of Shot Put
  2. Table of Specification for Shot Put
  3. Basic Skills and Techniques of Shot Put
  4. Execution of Basic Skills and Techniques of Shot Put
  5. Types of Putting the Shot
  6. Rules and Regulations Governing Shot Put Throw

 

Definition of Shot Put

Shot Put is a field event that involves the putting of a missile called the shot for a horizontal distance. A competitor is allowed three trials. Put is made from within a circle of 2.135m in diameter to a landing sector of 400.

 

Table of Specification for Shot Put

SEX WEIGHT
MEN 7.26 KG
WOMEN 4 KG

 

Basic Skills and Techniques of Shot Put

(i) The hold

(ii) The stance

(iii) The glide

(iv) The release

(v) The follow through

(vi) The recovery

 

Execution of Basic Skills and Techniques of Shot Put

(i) The hold: The shot is held by the fingers and not on the palm.

(ii) The stance: The stance depends on the methods of putting as there are various methods

Types of Putting the Shot

(a) The standing put

(b) The side shift put

(c) The drive or glide.

 

(iii) The glide: The glide is the movement across the circle and towards the step board.

(iv) The release (putting): The shot is released from under the ear, above the shoulder to form     arc before landing.

(v) The follow through: This is the position an athlete assumed after the release of the missile.

(vi) The recovery: It is the quick and prompt action taken by an athlete which signifies the end of an action.

Note: All students are expected to draw the throwing sector.

 

Rules and Regulations Governing Shot Put Throw

(i) The throwing sequence must begin within the sector and ends within the sector.

(ii) The thrower must not step beyond the step board before and after the throw.

(iii) The competitors are credited with the best of their trials

(iv) The missile must land within the throwing sector.

(v) All throwers are expected to back the spectators during the throw.

(vi) Missiles are to be rolled back to the sector after throw and not to be thrown.

 

EVALUATION

  1. Mention three (3) types of putting shot.
  2. State five rules and regulations governing shot put throw.

ATHLETICS: DISCUS

CONTENT

  1. Definition of Discus
  2. Table of Specification for Discus
  3. Basic Skills and Techniques in Discus
  4. Execution of Basic Skills and Techniques in Discuss
  5. Rules and Regulations Governing Discus Throw

 

Definition of Discus

Discus is a field event which involves throwing a missile called discuss for a horizontal distance. A competitor is allowed three trials; the throwing is made from within a throwing circle of 2.50m in diameter to a landing sector of 40o.

 

Table of Specification for Discus

SEX WEIGHT
MEN 2 KG
WOMEN 1 KG

 

Basic Skills and Techniques in Discus

(i) Grip/Hold

(ii) Stance

(iii) Swing

(iv) Turns

(v) Release

(vi) Follow through the sector

(vii) Recovery

Note: The discus must land within the landing sector which is 40o and both legs must be behind the metal rim.

 

Execution of Basic Skills and Techniques in Discuss

(i) The hold: The discus is placed on the palm and the spread fingers curl over to hold it.

(ii) The stance: The thrower stands at the rear of the circle with the feet slightly apart and backing the landing sector.

(iii) The swing: The discus is swung to meet the other hand near the shoulder to gather

(iv) The turns: It is the movement of the body towards the direction of throw.

(v) The release: This is done at shoulder level.

(vi) The follow through: This is the position an athlete assumed after the release of the missile.

(vii) Recovery: It is the quick and prompt action taken by an athlete which signifies the end of an action. Note:- All students are expected to draw the throwing sector.

 

Rules and Regulations Governing Discus Throw

(i) The throwing sequence must begin within the sector and ends within the sector.

(ii) The thrower must not step beyond the step board before and after the throw.

(iii) The competitors are credited with the best of their trials

(iv) The missile must land within the throwing sector.

(v) All throwers are expected to back the spectators during the throw.

(vi) Missiles are to be rolled back to the sector after throw and not to be thrown.

 

EVALUATION

  1. Differentiate between discus and shot put.
  2. State two similarities between shot put and discus.
  3. Explain execution of discus throw.

RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING SHOT PUT AND DISCUS THROW

CONTENT

  1. Rules and Regulations Governing Shot Put and Discuss Throw
  2. Safety Precautions in Shot Put and Discus Throw

 

Rules and Regulations Governing Shot Put and Discuss Throw

The following are the rules and regulations governing shot put and discuss throw:

(i) The throwing sequence must begin within the sector and end within the sector.

(ii) The thrower must not step beyond the step board before and after the throw.

(iii) The competitors are credited with the best of their trials

(iv) The missile must land within the throwing sector.

(v) All throwers are expected to back the spectators during the throw.

(vi) Missiles are to be rolled back to the sector after throw and not to be thrown.

Safety Precautions in Shot Put and Discus Throw

The following safety precautions are to the observed in shot put and discus throw:

(i) All officials and spectators must stay clear of throwing sector during the throw.

(ii) Adequate warm up must be ensured by all athletes.

(iii) Before and during the throw, all official and non -official movement must be suspended.

(iv) The throwing sector must not be slippery or water lodged

(v) Equipment must be well inspected before use.

(vi) The participants must have thorough knowledge of the event.

(vii) Athlete must wear suitable/smart dress for effective and efficient movement.

 

EVALUATION

  1. State five (5) safety measures in shot put and discus.
  2. As an athlete, mention five reasons why you cannot ignore the rules and regulations of discus throw.

 

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