Basic Science and Technology
Basic 4 / Year 4 / Primary 4
Previous lesson :
The pupils have previous knowledge of pests and disease control of plants in their previous lesson
Behavioural objectives :
At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to
- Explain different types of pests
- Mention different types of crop plant diseases
Instructional Materials :
- Wall charts
- Related Online Video
- Flash Cards
Methods of Teaching :
- Class Discussion
- Group Discussion
- Asking Questions
- Role Modelling
- Role Delegation
Reference Materials :
- Scheme of Work
- Online Information
- 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
PESTS AND DISEASES OF CROP PLANTS
Pests are living organisms that affect plants growth. These living organisms that are pests may be birds , insects or rodents . Disease are caused by either bacterial or fungi in plant crops. Pests and diseases are common in crop plants growing in garden and farms. Crop plants that area affected by pests and diseases do not grow well, their leaves may be rotten by pests, or their fruits may be rotten because they are diseased. Such crop plants do not produce good harvests.
Pests live on crop plants and eat the leaves, stems, fruits and even the roots of such crop plants. They do not allow them to grow well. Disease-causing organisms also live on crop plants and make them very sick.
||Example of plants
||Effect on plants affected
||Eats leaves of all crops
||Eats leaves of all crops
||Eats leaves and fruits of okra
||Eats cassava tuber
||Eats fruits of cocoa and other plants
Common diseases of crop plants
||Organism that causes disease
||Effects of disease
||Rust on leaves
||death of parts leaves, which turn into brown patches. Low yield
||Wilt of vegetable seedlings
||Fungus grows on leaves and stems of vegetables. The vegetables die and decay
||Brown spots leading to decay
||Causes decay and wastage of yam
To reduce the damages caused by pests to crop plants, farmer need to control the pests and diseases. They can do this in many ways
- Farmer can hand-pick the large pests and kill them.
- Farmers should use natural enemies to kill pests.
- Farmers should keep the farm very clean, by removing weeds.
When pests and diseases are too many, farmers can use chemicals to kill the pests, fungi and bacteria. This method is called chemical control. It is like when your parents spray insecticide in your home to kill mosquitoes and cockroaches. But farmers must be very careful when using chemicals to control pests for these reasons:
- The chemicals can kill other animals such as the farmers’ friends.
- The chemicals can get into our surroundings to poison our waters.
- The chemicals can remain on the fruits and vegetables from the crop plants and poison us when we eat such fruits and vegetables.
(A). Evaporation : This is the conversion or transformation of water into gas or vapour
(B). Condensation : This is the process in which water vapour turns back to liquid . It is the inverse or opposite of evaporation
(C). Importance of water
The topic is presented step by step
The class teacher revises the previous topics
He introduces the new topic
The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise
The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.
The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.
He or she does the necessary corrections when and where the needs arise.
- Give five examples of pests
- Why are some animals are called farmers’ friends? Name two animals or insects that are called farmers’ friend
- Name a simple way of controlling pests of crop plant
Prepare for the next lesson by reading about human body feeding system
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