The Feeding system in Human Body

Subject : 

Basic Science and Technology

Term :

Second  Term

Week:

Week 7

Class :

Basic 4 / Year 4 / Primary 4

 

Previous lesson : 

The pupils have previous knowledge of pests and disease control of plants in their  previous lesson

Topic :

P

 

Behavioural objectives :

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to

  • Explain different types of  pests
  • Mention different types of crop plant diseases

Instructional Materials :

  • Wall charts
  • Pictures
  • Related Online Video
  • Flash Cards

Methods of Teaching :

  • Class Discussion
  • Group Discussion
  • Asking Questions
  • Explanation
  • Role Modelling
  • Role Delegation

 

Reference Materials :

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
  • Workbooks

 

Content :

PESTS AND DISEASES OF CROP PLANTS

Pests are living organisms that affect plants growth. These living organisms that are pests may be birds , insects or rodents . Disease are caused by either bacterial or fungi in plant crops.  Pests and diseases are common in crop plants growing in garden and farms. Crop plants that area affected by pests and diseases do not grow well, their leaves may be rotten by pests, or their fruits may be rotten because they are diseased. Such crop plants do not produce good harvests.

Pests live on crop plants and eat the leaves, stems, fruits and even the roots of such crop plants. They do not allow them to grow well. Disease-causing organisms also live on crop plants and make them very sick.

Pest Example of plants Effect on plants affected
Caterpillar All crops Eats leaves of all crops
Beetle Many crops Eats leaves of all crops
Beetle Okra Eats leaves and fruits of okra
Grass cutter Cassava Eats cassava tuber
Monkey Cocoa Eats fruits of cocoa and other plants

 

Common diseases of crop plants

Crop Disease Organism that causes disease Effects of disease
Maize Rust on leaves Bacterium death of parts leaves, which turn into brown patches. Low yield
Tomato, spinach Wilt of vegetable seedlings Fungus Fungus grows on leaves and stems of vegetables. The vegetables die and decay
Yam tuber Brown spots leading to decay Fungus Causes decay and wastage of yam

 

To reduce the damages caused by pests to crop plants, farmer need to control the pests and diseases. They can do this in many ways

  1. Farmer can hand-pick the large pests and kill them.
  2. Farmers should use natural enemies to kill pests.
  3. Farmers should keep the farm very clean, by removing weeds.

When pests and diseases are too many, farmers can use chemicals to kill the pests, fungi and bacteria. This method is called chemical control. It is like when your parents spray insecticide in your home to kill mosquitoes and cockroaches. But farmers must be very careful when using chemicals to control pests for these reasons:

  1. The chemicals can kill other animals such as the farmers’ friends.
  2. The chemicals can get into our surroundings to poison our waters.
  3. The chemicals can remain on the fruits and vegetables from the crop plants and poison us when we eat such fruits and vegetables.

 

 

Water
(A). Evaporation : This is the conversion or transformation of water into gas or vapour

(B). Condensation : This is the process in which water vapour turns back to liquid . It is the inverse or opposite of evaporation

(C). Importance of water

Presentation

 

The topic is presented step by step

 

Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics

 

Step 2.

He introduces the new topic

 

Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise

 

 

Conclusion

The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.

He or she does the necessary corrections when and where  the needs arise.

 

Evaluation

    1. Give five examples of pests
    2. Why are some animals are called farmers’ friends? Name two   animals or insects that are called farmers’ friend
    3.  Name a simple way of controlling pests of crop plant

 

 

Assignment

Prepare for the next lesson by reading about  human body feeding system

 

 

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