Information Communication Technology PRIMARY 5 ICT FIRST TERM

 

Information Communication Technology

PRIMARY 5 ICT FIRST TERM

WEEKLY TOPICS AND PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES

  1. Meaning of Computer systems system
  2. Components of (I) explain the term hardware Computer system (II) explain the term software and Hardward
  3. Components of Computer system users
  4. Classes of (I) identify different types of Computer by type computeAnalogue (II) mention types of computerDigitalHybrid
  5. Classification by computer by size
  6. Classification of computers by generation
  7. Classification of Computer by purpose
  8. Mainframe
  9. Super computer
  10. Mini – computer
  11. Micro – computer
  12. Revision
  13. Examination

WEEK 1&2

THE COMPUTER SYSTEM

BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:

  1. Explain the term computer system
  2. Explain computer hardware and software

CONTENT

Meaning of Computer System

A computer is an information machine that can store, retrieve and process data. A computer is also an electronic machine which accepts data as input, processes data and gives out information as results or output. Data are figures, words and symbols which the computer works upon.

 

 

 

A computer system is one that is able to take a set of inputs, process them and create a set of outputs. This is done by a combination of hardware and software. Computer systems will include the computer along with any software and peripheral devices that are necessary to make the computer function. Every computer system, for example, requires an operating system.

Components of the computer system

The computer system has three components. These are the hardware, the software and the users.

Hardware components

The hardware components of the computer system are the parts that we can see, feel or touch.

The three types of hardware components of the computer system are:

  1. Input devices
  2. System unit
  3. Output devices Input devices

 

 

 

We enter data into the computer through the input devices these input devices are the keyboard, mouse, joystick, microphone and light pen.

 

 

 

THE SYSTEM UNIT

The system unit is made up of the central processing unit (CPU), and the main memory. Data is processed in the CPU and it has two parts. These are the:

  1. arithmetic and logic unit
  2. control unit Output devices

Through the output devices, the computer gives

out information to the user. This information is theresult of the processing activities in the CPU. Them onitor, printer and speakers are these output

devices.

 

 

 

EVALUATION

. Explain the term computer system

2. Explain computer hardware and software

 

 

WEEK 3

Software components

A computer solves a problem only when it receives instructions. These instructions are the software of the computer. A set of instructions is called a program. There are three types of software. These are the system software, programming languages and application software.

Users

The third component of the computer system is the user. Users are the people that use the computer. The computer cannot function by itself if not operated by human beings. This component is also known as the people ware.

There are different types of computer users. Some of them are:

  1. Computer policy makers: These are people that make laws concerning the making of the computer.
  2. Programmers: These are people that write instructions for the computer to perform certain operations.
  3. Operators: These are the people that have direct contact with the computer, and they use it on a daily basis.

EVALUATION

. Explain the term computer system

 

 

 

2. Explain computer hardware and software

WEEK 4&5

Classification of Computers

BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:

  1. LIST COMPUTER by size
  2. Mention the different sizes of computers CONTENT

Classification Of Computers

Computer can be classified or typed in many ways some common classifications include;

    • According to Size
    • According to Type
    • According to Purpose
  1. Classification By Type

THERE ARE THREE TYPES OF COMPUTERS IN USE TODAY NAMELY;

    1. Analogue computer
    2. Digital computer
    3. Hybrid computer.

Analogue computer

Analogue computers are either electronic or hydraulic devices that are designed to exploit mathematical similarity between physical interrelationships in certain problems instead of numeric, to process their

 

data.

FOR INSTANCE: Imagine a computer that receives current as input then converts it in to voltage which may now be added or multiplied and sent to other devices for a specific purpose. The term analogue means ‘‘continuity’’ of associated quantity like an analogue clock measures time by means of the distance travelled by the hand of the clock around a dial.

Examples

  • Speedometer

 

  • Analogue clock
  • Tire pressure gauge
  • Thermometer

ADVANTAGES

  1. Store images
  2. Sound, motion pictures
  3. Devices and media that represent.

DISADVANTAGES

  • Complexity
  • They were very complicated for containing output for the users some time.

DIGITAL COMPUTER

Digital computer solves problems by performing calculations and by dealing with each number digit by digit. Every things that a digital computer does is based on one operation .The ability to determine whether a switch or ‘‘gate’’, is open or closed that is, the computer can recognize only two states in any of its microscopic circuit on or off, high voltage or low voltage. Using the binary system of numbers where there in only I and O,

1 stands for on and O stands for off. The speed at which the computer performs this simple act however, it is what makes it a marvel or Modern technology.

Examples

  • Digital watches
  • Calculators

 

 

  • Apple Macintosh etc.

HYBRID COMPUTER

Hybrid computer contain elements of both digital and analogue computer. They are usually used for problems in which large numbers of complex equations, known as Time integrals, are to be computed.

Examples

  • Devices used in petrol pump.
  • They are used in the hospitals to measure the heartbeat of patient.
  • Hybrid machines are generally used in scientific applications or in controlling

 

EVALUATION

1 Give more examples of analog computers. 2 Give more examples of digital computers.

3 Name other hybrid computers that you know

 

WEEK 5

TOPIC; Classification By Size

BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:

  1. LIST COMPUTER GENERATIONS
  2. Mention the generation of computers

CONTENT

Classification By Size

There are three different sizes of computer. 1 micro computer

  1. mini computers
  2. mainframe computers Micro computers

 

 

 

 

Microcomputers are the most widely used type of computers. They are the smallest type of computers. They are also the cheapest type of computers. They are used in schools, offices and at home.

The desk-top computer and portable computers, such as the laptop, notebook and palm top computers are examples of microcomputers.

Minicomputers

 

 

 

A minicomputer is larger than a microcomputer. The minicomputer also works faster and is more expensive than the microcomputer. Minicomputers are used in medium-sized factories and companies.

Mainframe computers

 

 

Mainframe computers are much bigger, faster and more powerful than minicomputers. A mainframe computer is made up of separate units. The separate units are combined together to form a network. Mainframe computers are more expensive than minicomputers. They are mainly used in government departments, banks and universities. Mainframe computers are used in NECO, JAMB and WAEC offices.

WEEK 6

TOPIC: Classification By Generation

The following are the five generations of computers. First Generation of Computers (1942-1955)

When computers were first made, they were large and costly. They gave out heat when used. They were also slow in making calculations and could only store very few items of information. They also needed much electricity before

they could be used.

Second Generation Computers (1955-1964)

Soon, the large, costly and slow computers were no longer used by many people. New computers which were cheaper and smaller than the first ones had been made. These were the second generation computers. These new computers stored many more items of information than the earlier computers. They also used less electricity. These second generation computers worked faster than the first generation computers.

Third Generation Computers (1964-1975)

 

 

Third generation computers

In the third generation computers, the electric pathways were all joined as one, inside the computers. This was called an integrated circuit. Electricity therefore moved very fast through the computers. The third generation computers were cheaper, smaller and faster than the second generation computers. They also used less electricity and gave out less heat when used. Many people soon began to use the third generation computers.

Fourth Generation Computers (1975-Present)

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The type of computers we use today are the fourth generation computers. The electric pathways are even more completely joined inside the computers. They are therefore said to have large-scale integrated circuits. The large-scale integrated circuits have made the fourth generation computers better than all the earlier ones. They are smaller, cheaper and store more items of information than the third generation computers. The fourth generation computers have made computers to be well known all over the world.

.Fifth Generation Computers (Present & Beyond)

The makers of computers are still working hard to make even better computers. These are the fifth generation computers.

 

They are the next generation of computers. Scientists think that these computers will act like human beings

EVALUATION

  1. LIST COMPUTER GENERATIONS
  2. Mention the generation of computers

WEEK 7

TOPIC: Classification By Purpose

BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:

  1. Mention the classification of computer by purpose
  2. Identify special and general purpose computer

CONTENT

Classification By Purpose

THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF COMPUTER UNDER THIS CATEGORY. THEY ARE:

GENERAL PURPOSE COMPUTERS

These are multipurpose computer capable of solving a wide range of problems (task). They can be used in and various aspect like drawing, typing, calculating, designing multimedia functions playing games etc. Examples are the desktop computer, laptop, mini tower computer, etc.

SPECIAL PURPOSE COMPUTERS

These are dedicated computers designed solely for the purpose for solving a particular problem. Examples are the road traffic light control, calculator’s robots (robotic), counting machine etc.

EVALUATION

 

 

  1. . Mention the classification of computer by purpose
  2. Identify special and general purpose computer

WEEK 8

SIZES OF COMPUTERS BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:

  1. Mention the classification of computer by purpose
  2. Identify special and general purpose of computer. CONTENT

MAINFRAME COMPUTER

SIZE: Mainframe computer are large and expensive.

SPEED: Mainframe computer accept hundreds of thousands of users simultaneously. They are in one way superior and more powerful than super computers because they can support more programs simultaneously with users handling massive amount of input, output and storage processes. They can execute a single program faster than mainframe computers.

USAGE; They are used in banks and big business organization like in JAMB, WAEC, NECO ETC

EVALUATION

Explain mainframe computer based on its size, speed and usage.

WEEK 9

TOPIC: SUPER COMPUTER

BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:

  1. Describe super computer
  2. Mention the uses of super computer. CONTENT

SUPER COMPUTER

 

Size: They are not easily seen in most public places because of their size and the cost. They are very expensive.

SPEED: It can perform hundreds of millions of instructions per seconds. So, they are the fastest and most powerful types of computer.

USAGE: They are used for performing specialized applications, which requires immense mathematical calculations. It is used in universities, research institutes, government agencies, large business enterprises, meteorology department for weather forecasting, in animation, fluid dynamics, calculation, petroleum exploration, nuclear research, etc

EVALUATION

Explain super computer based on its size, sped and usage.

WEEK 10&11

TOPIC: MINI AND MACRO COMPUTER

BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:

  1. Describe mini and micro computer
  2. Mention the uses of mini and micro computer. MINI COMPUTER

SIZE; they are small/medium size both in size and performance

SPEED: it does the same work as super computer and mainframe computer at a lower speed. It is also a multiprocessing system and it can support 4-200 user simultaneously.

USAGE; they are used as network servers and internet servers with the help of multiple terminal. They are used in universities, polytechnics, and organizations like banks, internet service companies. Minicomputers are easier to use.

MICRO COMPUTER

SIZE: they are the smallest and least expensive of all computers.

SPEED: They possess the smallest memory and less power. These computer permit only fewer peripherals to be attached as they are relatively smaller in size.

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USAGE; They are known as personal computer or pc. Examples are desktop computer, laptop computer, palmtop, tablets, etc

EVALUATION

Explain mini and micro computer based on its size, sped and usage.

Super Computers

They are most powerful and expensive computers. they have externally large storage capacities and processing speed is at least 10 times faster than other computers. Some of the super computers are NEC , CRAY ,CYBER 205,CDC STAR 100 etc. Supercomputers are the most powerful and expensive computers. They process billions of instructions in one second. They are also the largest type of computers.

Supercomputers are used in big organisations like the military, airports and other

scientific organisations.

Main-frame

They are medium or large machine, made of several units connected together .

It’s generally used in big organizations.

Minicomputers

They are like small mainframes. They consist of a few separate units connected together. They are not powerful as mainframe computers.

Micro-computer

They are the smallest general purpose computers. They are about the same size an of a typewriter machine. They are used in different applications like business, engineering, schools, colleges, entertainment etc.

 

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