MUSICAL INSTRUMENT AND SOUNDS

 

CULTURAL AND CREATIVE ARTS SECOND TERM E NOTES FOR BASIC FOUR

WEEK TOPIC

  1. MUSICAL INSTRUMENT AND SOUNDS
  2. CLASSIFICATION OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
  3. CLASSIFICATION OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS CONT.
  4. DANCES IN THE LOCALITY
  5. BODY MOVEMENT IN DANCE
  6. BODY MOVEMENT IN DANCE CONT.
  7. DRAMA
  8. DRAMA: INTRODUCTION TO PLAY ACTING
  9. DRAMA: INTRODUCTION TO PLAY ACTING
  10. REVISION

Class:- Basic 4

Subject:- Cultural and Creative Art

Week:- 1

Topic: Musical Instrument

Behavioral objective:- By the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following objectives (cognitive, affective and psychomotor) and should be able to –

1. Explain the meaning of musical Instrument

2. Differentiate between local and foreign musical instrument

3. Draw and label any musical instrument

Instructional material/Reference material:- Learn Africa Cultural and Creative Art UBE edition for primary school book 4, picture, chart.

Building Background /connection to prior knowledge : Students are familiar with some musical instrument such as drum etc

CONTENT

MUSICAL INSTRUMENT

Musical instrument are what is used to produce good musical sound.

In Nigeria we have locally made musical instrument. These local instruments are made from materials found around us. Local instrument can also be called percussion instruments.

Musical instruments are the objects put together to produce sound. By the time they are played together, they produce different sounds in one music. Some musical instruments that are common in our society are: kakaki, udu (musical pot), Agogo (gong), gangan, kalangu, bata, kwen and so on. Musical instruments are dividing into (i) local musical instruments and (ii) foreign or western musical instruments.

 

  1. Local Musical instruments: are objects put together in a local way in the locality to produce music, such as

udu,

kakaki,

Stone,

Wood,

Calabash,

gangan,

kalangu,

  1. Foreign/ western musical instruments: these are objects that are used by foreigners to produce their own music which are brought into the Nigerian music as guitar, saxophone, flute, base –drum and so on.

PRODUCTION OF SOUNDS

Local instruments produce sound by hitting, shaking, and beating, blowing air into it, plucking or by rubbing the instruments.

The following musical instrument according to their sound production:

  • Hitting: Agogo
  • Beating: drum, talking drum, xylophone, udu(musical pot) gangan.
  • Blowing air: algiata, kakaki, ogene
  • Shaking: maracas, rattle, shekere.
  • Plucking: goje, thumb piano

Evalution :-

1. What are musical instruments?

2. Explain in details

  1. Local musical instrument –
  2. Foreign musical musical instruments –

3. Draw and label any three musical instruments

Class:- Basic 4

Subject:- Cultural and Creative Art

Week:- 2

Topic: Musical Instrument

Behavioral objective:- By the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following objectives (cognitive, affective and psychomotor) and should be able to –

1. Explain the meaning of musical Instrument

2. Classify musical instrument

Instructional material/Reference material:- Learn Africa Cultural and Creative Art UBE edition for primary school book 4, picture, chart.

Building Background /connection to prior knowledge : Students have learnt about musical instrument in their previous lesson

CONTENT

FOREIGN/WESTERN MUSICAL INTRUMNETS

MEANING OF FOREIGN INSTRUMENTS

Foreign musical instrument are instrument that are not made locally in Nigeria and it is used to produce good musical sounds and songs. Foreign musical instrument can also be called western musical instruments.

These instruments can be played by one or more person. When a single person played the musical instrument it is called solo.

When a particular instrument is played by two people, it is called a duet.

When three people play, it is called trio.

When four people play, it is called a quartet.

When eight people played, it is called octet

When more people played the same kind of instrument, it is called an ensemble.

There is brass ensemble, string ensemble, and clarinet ensemble. When all the different instruments come together in their numbers to play, it is called orchestra.

  1. Woodwind family: examples of woodwind instruments are: recorder, flute, clarinet, saxophone and piccolo.

Brass wind family: these instruments are made of metal; examples are trumpet, trombone, tuba, bugle and French horn.

  1. String family: these instruments have string attached to them, and the strings are played to produce sound. Examples are guitar, violin, and double bass and so on.

  1. Keyboard family: these instruments can also be grouped under string family, because they too have string that controls the keys. Examples are piano, organ and accordion.

  1. Percussion family: are the musical instruments, played by striking, examples are cymbals, tambourine, Drum of various kinds, such as drum set and so on.

Evaluation:-

  1. Identify and name some musical instruments
  2. Define local and foreign musical instruments

Class:- Basic 4

Subject:- Cultural and Creative Art

Week:- 3

Topic: Classification of musical Instrument

Behavioral objective:- By the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following objectives (cognitive, affective and psychomotor) and should be able to –

1. Classify musical instruments and sounds.

Instructional material/Reference material:- Learn Africa Cultural and Creative Art UBE edition for primary school book 4, picture, chart.

Building Background /connection to prior knowledge : Students have learnt about the families of musical Instrument

CONTENT

CLASSIFICATION OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

Nigerian/local musical instruments are grouped into four families:

  1. Aero phonic: these instruments produce sound by blowing air into them, example is flute.
  2. Chordophone: these instruments produce sound by playing the string attached to them with bow e.g. Goje.
  3. Idophonic/diaphone: these are instruments that produce sound by beating their bodies, example Agogso( Gong), xylophone and sekere.
  4. Membranophonic: these set of instruments are made of skin animal and produce sound through vibration of the skin when beaten, either with bare hands or stick. These instruments are known as drums, example Gangan, Dundun, Gudugudu and so on.

Evaluation:-

1. Classify the local musical instruments into various families according to their sound production

Class:- Basic 4

Subject:- Cultural and Creative Art

Week:- 4

Topic: Drama

Behavioral objective:- By the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following objectives (cognitive, affective and psychomotor) and should be able to –

1. Define drama

2. Define theatre

3. Differentiate between drama and theatre

Instructional material/Reference material:- Learn Africa Cultural and Creative Art UBE edition for primary school book 4, picture, chart.

Building Background /connection to prior knowledge : Students are familiar with drama

CONTENT

INTRODUCTION TO THEATRE AND DRAMA

MEANING OF DRAMA

Drama is acting and imitation of people and situation (which means role playing of people and situation) before an audience by actors and actresses. Drama is also the package or play been acted in a theartre by actors and actresses.

ROLES OF ACTORS AND ACTRESSES IN DRAMA

The role of an actor or actress is to interpret the various characters in drama, to also act out the storyline of a given drama, so that the theme of such drama could be understood by the audience

THEATRE

Is the place or building in which actors and actresses perform or plays drama, it could be on stage or in an open space.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DRAMA AND THEATRE

  • Drama can occur without audience while in theatre, there must be an audience.
  • Actors and actresses play roles of characters without costumes and makeup in drama while in theatre, actors and actresses make use of costumes and make up.
  • Drama acting can happen anywhere or in any location acting in theatre is done in a specific location known as the theatre.

Evaluation:-

  1. Explain the meaning of drama
  2. Who is an actor?
  3. What is a theater?
  4. Explain the roles of actors in drama

Class:- Basic 4

Subject:- Cultural and Creative Art

Week:- 5

Topic: Dances of the Locality

Behavioral objective:- By the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following objectives (cognitive, affective and psychomotor) and should be able to –

1. Define dance

2. Explain features of traditional Dance

3. Perform a dance for any occasion

Instructional material/Reference material:- Learn Africa Cultural and Creative Art UBE edition for primary school book 4, picture, chart.

Building Background /connection to prior knowledge : Students are familiar with dance.

CONTENT

DANCES OF THE LOCALITY

ELEMENTS OF DANCE

Dance is the body movement to the rhythm of music. Dance is also the rhythmic movement of human body in space and time to make statements.

People dance at different occasions and festivals, such as naming ceremony, wedding ceremony, coronation ceremony, chieftaincy title ceremony, cultural festival etc.

Some dances on our locality include: Atilogu dance which is mainly for Ibo people, Bata dance for Yoruba people, Swage dance for Benue people, Koroso dance is for Hausa people, Kyaro war dance is for Warjawa people of Bauchi State, Takai dance is for Hausa/Fulani people of Bauchi state.

All these dances are performed at various occasions, ceremonies, and festivals. For example, the Takai dance of Hausa/Fulani of Bauchi state is normally performed after harvest and other occasions. Atilogu dance of the Ibo people is performed at any occasion. Likewise Bata dance of the Yoruba people is also performed at the Sango festival.

USES OF DANCE

  • Dance is used to communicate and express feelings
  • It is used to pass information
  • It serve as entertainment for the people

FEATURES OF TRADITIONAL DANCE

Traditional dance is the dance that is recognize by a particular tribes

  • Movement
  • Facial expression
  • Gesture
  • Color
  • Floor pattern
  • Song/music
  • Space
  • Make up

DANCES FOR DIFFERENT OCCASIONS IN NIGERIA

Nigeria, we have different kinds of dance from different tribes like Igbo cultural dance, Fulani cultural dance. They are performed on occasions like festivals and ceremonies. Some of these dances atre performed by masquerades, members of a cult group, title holders. Etc.

CHARACTERISTIC AND FEATURES OF TRADITIONAL DANCES IN NIGERIA

Dance are danced out of natural and basic movement

Some name of Nigeria traditional dances

  • Bata dance
  • Sharo dance
  • Jarawa dance
  • Atilogwu dance
  • Ekombi dance
  • Swange dance

Evalution:-

  1. Name four dances in the locality
  2. _________________________
  3. _________________________
  4. ________________________
  5. _________________________

Class:- Basic 4

Subject:- Cultural and Creative Art

Week:- 6 and 7

Topic: Body movement in dance

Behavioral objective:- By the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following objectives (cognitive, affective and psychomotor) and should be able to –

1. Explain the meaning of natural and basic movement in dance

2. State the meaning of time, space, effort and mood.

3. Respond to music using body movement

Instructional material/Reference material:- Learn Africa Cultural and Creative Art UBE edition for primary school book 4, picture, chart.

Building Background /connection to prior knowledge : Students have learnt about dance in the previous lesson.

CONTENT

BODY MOVEMENT IN DANCE

Meaning of natural and basic body movement.

Basic body movements are natural things or step to move our body.

The three basic principles in dancing are. Like running, walking, jumping, etc.

Expressing concepts of time, space and mood in dance

In dance, the dancer must use time, space, mood and other relevant elements together for a reasonable dance to be achieved. The dancer must move in time to the rhythm of the music on the space he/she is occupying at the particular period of time. At the same time, the dancer creates mood as he/ she moves at appropriate time in space. The timing and the movement of the dancer show the mood of the dance and the dancer, for example a dancer who moves very fast with smile all over his/her face shows a good mood, while a dancer who moves very slowly, and drops his head to his chest, shows a very bad mood.

  1. Space
  2. Time
  3. Force

Movement to music and rhythm:

Dance and music cannot be separated, the two go together. When movement is made in dance without definite timing, rhythm is missed, and we cannot call it dance. Rhythm in dance is the particular speed and time at which a specific movement is made in space. Rhythm in music comes in the form of sounds, while rhythm in dance comes in form of body movements at specific time and space

 

RESPONDING TO MUSIC USING BODY MOVEMENT

To respond to music using body movement, the dancer notes the beat, tempo or speed of the music. When the tempo is fast, the dance should take a fast movement to meet up. If it is slow, the dancer responds slowly

Evaluation

  1. list the three main principles of dance
  2. ___________________________
  3. ___________________________
  4. ___________________________
  5. Explain body movement in dance

Class:- Basic 4

Subject:- Cultural and Creative Art

Week:- 8 and 9

Topic: Introduction to play acting

Behavioral objective:- By the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following objectives (cognitive, affective and psychomotor) and should be able to –

1. Explain the meaning of natural and basic movement in dance

2. State the meaning of time, space, effort and mood.

3. Respond to music using body movement

Instructional material/Reference material:- Learn Africa Cultural and Creative Art UBE edition for primary school book 4, picture, chart.

Building Background /connection to prior knowledge : Students are familiar with drama.

CONTENT

INTRODUCTION TO PLAY ACTING

Play acting is the effort or the act by which an actor by which an actor/ actress interprets the character in drama or play the actor tries as much as possible to portray a particular character he represents in a play or drama to the best of his/ her ability for the audience to understand.

DEFINITION OF AN ACTOR

An actor is the person that plays the role of a character on a stage or film for the audience. The male is called an actor while the female is called an actress. He or she is the real person who performs on the behalf of the character in the script.

NAMES OF POPULAR ACTOR/ ACTRESS

  • Joke Sylva
  • Genevieve Nnaji
  • NUHU Ali
  • Ini Edo
  • Olu Jacob
  • Jide Kosoko

Character is the qualities making a person to be what he or she is. This is what an actor or an actress portrays to the audience, while impersonation is the act by which an actor or actress plays the role of different character entirely different from his/her own.

Role playing is the role given to an actor or actress in a play or drama, which he/she performs to define a real character.

Costume and make up: the garment worn on stage by the actors is known as costume while makeup is the materials or cosmetics used on actors’ body or face to give the interpretation of a charater more meaning. It is the substance for making a young person to look like an old person as required in the drama.

TWO COMMON CLASSES OF CHARACTERS

  1. Round character
  2. Flat character
  3. Round character: is the one who changes with time and circumstances in a play or drama. Example, a housegirl in a drama may have the opportunity tio further her education to SECONDARY SCHOOL, to the UNIVERSITY, get a good job, BE HAPPILY MARRIEDD, and then SUCCESSFUL in life.
  4. Flat character: flat character is the character in drama that does not change with time and circumstances in drama

Evaluation:-

  1. Define play acting
  2. Explain costume and make up
  3. Identify two c lasses of characters in a given play

 

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