THIRD TERM E-LEARNING NOTES
JS 1 (BASIC 7)
SUBJECT: BUSINESS STUDIES
SCHEME OF WORK
- Revision of Last term’s work.
- Pitman Shorthand (Consonants): (i) Meaning of consonants (ii) Basic shorthand principles (iii) the first six groups. (iv) Joining of consonants. (v) Phrasing (vi) Punctuation marks.
- Pitman Shorthand (Consonants and Vowels): Consonants and Vowels – (i) Second group of consonants (f, v, th, Th, s, z, sh, zh) (ii) first place vowel (above the line). (iii) third place vowel (through the line).
- Introduction to Keyboarding: (i) The meaning of keyboarding (ii) The importance of keyboarding (iii) Correct sitting posture for keyboarding.
- Parts of the Typewriter: (i) Meaning of typewriter. Typewriter parts. (ii) Uses of parts of the typewriter.
- Parts of a Computer Keyboard: (i) Parts of the Computer keyboard. (ii) Uses (functions) of parts of the computer keyboard. (iii) Similarities between the typewriter and computer keyboards.
- Care of the Typewriter and the Computer: (i) Care of the typewriter. (ii) Care of the Computer.
- Getting ready to Keyboard: (i) International paper sizes used in keyboarding. (ii) The keyboard rows: Top, Upper, Home, Nottem. (iii) Divisions of the keyboard. – Left hand side, Right hand side.
- Getting ready to Keyboard: (iv) Correct finger position on keys. (v) Correct paper insertion and removal in/from typewriter. (vi) Setting margins and line space regulator. (vii) Type faces on a typewriter: – Pica, Elite.
- Learning the keyboard: (i) Correct finger position on the home keys. (ii) Correct finger movement on the home keys (iii) Correct ways for positions on the: Home Row, Upper Row, Top Row. (iv) Correct finger position and movement for special characters and figures.
Activity: Revision of second term work
Topic: PITMAN SHORTHAND (CONSONANTS)
Content: (i) Meaning of consonants
(ii) Basic shorthand principles
(iii) The first six groups
(iv) Joining of consonants
(vi) Punctuation marks.
Sub-Topic 1: Meaning of consonants; Basic shorthand principles and The first six groups
MEANING OF CONSONANTS
Consonant is a speech sound produced by party or totally blocking the path of airways
through the mouth or nose. In shorthand, there are twenty-six consonants where alphabets
‘H’ and ‘R’ carry two consonants each.
BASIC SHORTHAND PRINCIPLE
There are basically two principles or rule governing shorthand. These are;
- Representation of shorthand consonants with light or thick strokes e.g.
- Representation of vowel sounds with dots and dashes e.g. a——– o———-
FIRST SIX CONSONANTS IN SHORTHAND
Sub-Topic 2: Joining of consonants; Phrasing and Punctuation marks.
JOINING OF CONSONANTS
Shorthand outlines or strokes may be joined together without lifting of pencil while writing. The following are the examples of how to join the outlines together:
PB————- TD—————- CHJ—————–
BT——————- PD—————- TP———————
Phrasing is the joining of outlines without lifting the pencil in order to increase writing speed. The outlines formed are known as PHRASES. Join outlines only when it is easy and convenient to do so. In a phrase, the word (the) is represented by a tick joined to the stroke it follows. This tick is written upward or downwards to form a sharp angle. In order to join the small ticks (the) to outlines P and B, it must be written on the left hand side of P and B.
Note: Whenever a sentence begins with (the), the short form dot (.) is used, while at the middle of the sentence, the tick is used.
Example: to the ———————– of the ——————— and the——————–
Pay the——————- date the————————–
The following are the punctuation marks used in shorthand:
Full stop——————– question mark————————-
Exclamation mark————- dash———————–
Parenthesis (brackets)—————— hyphen———————
- Define consonant.
- Mention and represent the first six vowels in shorthand
Topic: PITMAN SHORTHAND (Consonant and Vowel)
CONTENTS: (i) Second group of consonants
(ii) First place vowel (above the line)
(iii) Third place vowel (through the line)
Sub-Topic 1: Second Group of Consonant (Continuants)
f——— v————-, th———–, Th——–
s———– z——– sh———- zh————–
Students should write the following: The arrow — shows the direction in which the stroke is to be written. The curves m, n, ng and the straight strokes k and g are written on the line.
PB————————– T, D————————–
CH————————– K, G————————–
Ref: Business Studies for Junior Secondary schools published jointly by Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council and Nelson Publishers Limited. Students Activity 1-4 from Page 98-100.
JOINING OF CONSONANTS
Consonants are easily joined together without lifting the pen; join the second consonant where the first ends, and write the stroke in its proper direction. Note that the first stroke rests on the line.
Ptpd p chpjbt
Sub-Topic 2: VOWELS
Vowels are represented by either dots or dashes written alongside the consonants strokes. When a vowel comes before a consonant, it is places before the stroke (left side). When a vowel comes after a consonant, it is placed after the stroke (right side).
There are three places alongside a stroke in which vowel may be written: beginning, middle and end, or first, second and third places. At first place, vowels are placed at the beginning of the consonant, at the second place, the vowels are placed at the middle of the consonant while at the end, the
FIRST PLACE VOWEL (above the line)
Topic: Introduction to keyboarding
Contents (i) The meaning of keyboarding
(ii) The importance of keyboarding
(iii) Correct sitting posture for keyboarding.
Sub-Topic 1: The meaning of keyboarding; The importance of keyboarding.
THE MEANING OF KEYBOARDING
Keyboarding is the act of using special machines like typewriter and computer to produce valuable
documents in mail-able form.
THE IMPORTANCE OF KEYBOARDING
The importance of keyboarding includes the following:
(i) it makes production of documents easier than the use of pen.
(ii) it provides neater and clearer documents.
(iii) it provides various job opportunities.
Sub-Topic 2: Correct sitting posture for keyboarding.
CORRECT POSTURE FOR KEYBOARDING
Efficiency in keyboarding can be achieved only if a suitable chair and table is used. Each should be placed at the correct height for the typist. For a correct sitting position, the under listed points should be observed:
- Places your book or the manuscript on the right hand side of the machine or as directed by the teacher or instructor to avoid obstruction.
Your fingertips should be placed on the home keys/guide keys; ASDF for the left hand and; LKJ for the right hand
Assign numbers to the fingers.
Keep your left thumb close to your left first finger.
Extend your right thumb so that it is slightly above the Centre of the space bar
At this juncture, check you posture
a. Your arms should hang naturally at your sides with elbows well positioned.
b. Hold your head erect facing the book.
c. Hold your shoulder back and relax.
d. Position yourself opposite the ‘j’ key.
e. Straighten your back with your body slopping slightly forward from the hips.
f. Sit in an upright position.
g. Feet should be firmly placed on the floor, preferably with one slightly in front of the other
to give balance.
h. Wrist to be kept low and straight.
i. Never type while looking at the keyboard.
FINGER MOVEMENT DRILL (Preliminary Practice): Knowing the finger movement or mastering the finger movement is very important in learning how to type. It is because of this that the preliminary practice of finger movement is important.
Finger movement drill is practiced thus:
Step 1: For the exercise you want to type, practice the finger movement without typing. This practice should continue until your fingers know when to move from the home keys.
Step 2: During this preliminary practice, you may look at your fingers, by so doing; you will find it helpfulto say the letters to yourself. But always remember to return your fingers to the home guide keys.
Step 3: When you are sure that your fingers have acquired the correct movement, the practice has to be repeated without looking at your fingers. Your eyes has to be kept on the copy or in your book and do not strike the keys. If you find it difficult making the finger movement, go back and repeat step 1 above.
Having seated correctly at the machine, strike each key lightly but firmly with the finger tips. During this process, the carriage will come automatically from right to left margin of the machine. Making sure that only one key is struck to avoid keys jamming at the printing point.
Strike the space bar smoothly with the right-hand thumb to obtain the necessary space after the word. But to begin a new line, return the carriage with the help of the carriage return lever. This will turn on a new line simultaneously. After striking, return all fingers to the home or guide keys immediately.
Before preparing to type, it will be worthwhile to look at your work on the machine. The more you keep your eyes on the copy and hands on the keyboard, the faster and more accurate you will be.
Finally, a good sitting position will give comfort; reduce fatigue and inaccuracy in typing.
- Define keyboarding.
List three importance of keyboarding.
List the home keys.
List and briefly explain three guidelines to consider in a correct keyboarding posture.
Topic: Parts of the Typewriter
Content: (i) Meaning of typewriter.
(ii) Typewriter parts
(iii) Uses of parts of the typewriter
Sub-Topic 1: Meaning of typewriter: Typewriter parts
MEANING OF TYPEWRITER
This is equipment that has revolutionized business procedures by making documentation of facts and data easy. It has also offered employment to millions of people throughout the world.
The typewriter is a machine which prints letters on a piece of paper when the keys are depressed. The machine is operated by means of keyboard and this produces characters similar to those used in printing. Its operation requires movement of the fingers and hands.
PARTS OF THE TYPEWRITER
- carriage release lever
- Carriage scale
- Carriage return or line space lever
- Back spacer
- Feed rollers
- Paper grips
- Paper bail
- Platen knobs
- Paper guide
- Margin sets or stop
- Margin release key
- Line space selector
- Printing point
- Ribbon switch
- Space bar
- shift keys
- Shift lock
- Bell warning
PARTS OF TYPEWRITER AND THEIR USES
Carriage: This is the upper part of the machine that can move freely from left to right when the key or space bar is depressed or touched.
Carriage release lever: It allows the carriage to be moved freely to the left and right margins when depressed.
Carriage scale: This serves as a guide in setting the left and right margins .It is graduated in scale.
Carriage returns or line space lever: It is used for turning up the paper and also for returning the carriage to the right in order to begin a new line.
Back Space: This moves the carriage backwards, one space at a time. It is also used in calculating in display work or used when you want to type over a lightly struck letter.
Feed rollers: It is a small rubber that is underneath and behind the platen to grip and hold the paper in position.
Paper grips: They are moveable rubbers on the paper bail. They hold the edges of the paper firmly against the platen. Before any typing work begins they should be set to the required position.
Paper bail: This is a device on the carriage that is used to clamp the top part of the paper to the cylinder. It is moveable, marked with typing scale on which the paper grips are mounted.
Platen/Cylinder: The platen or cylinder is a cylindrical roller on the carriage. It holds the paper in position and when the knob is turned, paper can be inserted or removed from the typewriter.
Platen knobs: This is used for turning the paper into position. It is situated at each end of the platen.
Paper guide: This guide is used to adjust the left edge of the typing paper. If the paper guide is kept constant, the subsequent typing papers will have the same margin.
Margin sets or stops: The margin sets are used to fix the points at which the lines of the typewriter begin on the left and on the right. It should be noted that the typewriter keyboard will lock as soon as the carriage moves four (4) or six (6) characters spaces after the bell has rung. The bell is a warning guide towards the end of the right margin.
Margin Release-key: This is used to move the carriage beyond margin stops.
Line space selector: This is the lever that is used to select the number of line spaces to be used while typing. It is marked 1,2,and3. It regulates the spacing between the typing lines.
Printing point : This is where the characters moves up to strike and print on the paper. It is V-shaped.
Ribbon switch: There are three positions
(a) using the top edge of the ribbon
(b) Using the lower half of the ribbon
(c) Disengaging the ribbon for cutting of stencil.
Keyboard: This is the frontal part of the typewriter that contains all the alphabets, numbers and the symbol keys. The alphabets and numbers we type in are done by depressing the keys of the keyboard.
Space bar: This is used to give spaces between words or characters.
Shift keys: They are used to change of the keys so that capital letters or lower case characters can be typed. The shift keys are two. They are placed on each side of the keyboard.
Shift lock: This locks the typewriter keys for continuous typing of the upper case character or capitals. It is released by depressing the left or right shift keys.
Bell warning: The bell is a warning guide towards the end of the right margin. The bell rings four to six spaces before the end of a line.
- Define a typewriter.
- Mention ten parts of a typewriter.
- What are the uses of the following parts of the typewriter-carriage, platen, left and right knobs, space bar and shift key?
Read Business Studies for junior secondary schools published jointly by Nigeria Educational Research and Development Council and Nelson Publishers Limited page 110-114
Topic: PARTS OF A COMPUTER KEYBOARD
Content: (i) parts of the computer keyboard
(ii) Uses (functions) of the parts the computer keyboard.
(iii) Similarities between the typewriter and computer keyboards.
Sub-Topic 1: Parts of the computer keyboard
MEANING OF COMPUTER
Computer is an electronic machine that receives and processes data in order to produce usable information. It can store, retrieve, edit and merge data or information.
Generation of computer
- First generation computer (1948-1958)
- Second generation computer (1959-1963)
- Third generation computer (1964-1970)
- Fourth generation computer (1971-1975)
- Fifth generation computer (1975-1995)
- Sixth generation computer (1995-date)
Types of Computer
- Analog computer
- Digital computer
- Hybrid computer
Classification of computer
- Supercomputers: They are the largest and are not common nowadays
- Mainframe computer: They are large and found in large business organizations.
- Mini computers: They are general-purpose systems. They are smaller and less expensive than mainframe.
- Micro Computer: They are called home computer, personal computer, desktop computer, portable computer, and laptop computer.
PARTS OF THE COMPUTER
The computer is made up of four different components namely:
- Central processing unit or system unit control
Sub-Topic 2: Uses of the Components
USES OF THE COMPONENTS
- Keyboard: The keyboard is an input device. Data (facts that are undergoing processing) is fed into the computer system through keyboard. It is similar to the typewriter keyboard with the exception of the following keys:
i. Numerical key: They are above the alphabets and in the separate optional group.
ii. Control Keys: These include shift key, return key, cursor control key, cancel key, delete
key, exit key etc.
iii. Alt: This is located at the left of the space bar. It is known as the alternate key.
iv. Esc: This is the escape key. Its functions depend on the type of software
v. Functions keys: They are used for different tasks and various application programmes.
Vi Alphanumeric key: Alphabet keys (A-Z) and numeric key (0-9).
vii. Space Bar Key: It moves the cursor to the right when pressed and leaves spaces in
between text when pressed.
viii. Caps Lock Key: It is a toggle key i. e. on/off. It is used to shift from the lower case
character to the upper case characters and vice versa. When it is pressed, the cap
lock indicator light on and all characters are in upper cases.
ix. Enter or Return key: It returns the cursor to the beginning of a new line.
x. Back Space Key: It erases character to the left when pressed.
(b) Monitor:Monitor is the output device. It is a display screen like a television screen. It enablesthe user to see the keyed in data.
(C) Central processing unit (CPU):It is also known as system unit control. The data that is fed into the system through the keyboard, displayed on the screen through the monitor is manipulated by the CPU to generate information. The central processing unit is the life blood of a computer system because it locates each instruction to be carried out on the system and performs arithmetic and logic functions.
(D) Mouse: It is also an input device like the keyboard. It is a hand held device, with roller on the bottom. It is used to control the cursor on the computer screen (monitor). For effective control, the mouse must be placed on a flat, smooth and soft surface. By clicking the mouse, you can make active the icon pointed to on the screen.
SIMILARITIES BETWEEN THE TYPEWRITER AND COMPUTER KEYBOARD
- The two have same text character.
- They both produce documents in mailable form.
Difference between the Typewriter and the computer
- Computer does data processing while the typewriter does not.
- There is great reduction of errors in data and information from a computer while errors are many in a typewriter document.
- Computer ensures accuracy of information.
- Computer makes task easier to handle
- Computer provides efficient storage facilities
- Computer gives fast access to information
- There is reduction of paper work since information is stored in a compressed form(soft copy) occupying less space
- What is a computer?
- List the types of computer.
- List seven computer keys and their function.
- State the difference between a typewriter and a computer.
Topic: CARE OF THE TYPEWRITER AND THE COMPUTER
Content: (i) Care of the typewriter
(ii) Care of the computer.
Sub- Topic 1: CARE OF THE TYPEWRITER
The following are ways we can care for the typewriter:
- Always cover the typewriter after the day’s work or when it is not in use.
- Use a backing sheet behind ordinary paper to: (a) protect the platen. (b) Improve the appearance of the work. (c) Reduce noises (d) prevent the paper from being creased.
- Make sure you set the right hand margin to avoid typing on the edge of your paper and damage the roller.
- Before lifting the typewriter, lock the carriage by moving the two margin set to the centre and carry the machine by the base of the carriage.
- Strike the keys lightly and avoid double typing to prevent making holes on the typing sheet and preserve the platen from wearing out on time.
- When erasing, always move the carriage to the right or left to avoid particles from falling into the type basket.
- Prevent non-expert from using the machine to avoid mal handling.
- Consult a typewriter engineer in case of any fault.
- Clean the type keys with brush or pick the key holes with office pin to improve your typing production.
- A typewriter which is in constant use should be serviced by a skilled mechanic every four months.
MATERIALS USED FOR THE CARE AND MAINTENANCE OF THE TYPEWRITER
- A duster.
- A long-handled soft brush, similar to a paint brush.
- A type-cleaning brush, similar to a tooth brush.
- A bottle of best typewriter oil.
- A small bottle of cleaning or methylated spirit.
GUIDELINES FOR CLEANING AND OILING THE TYPEWRITER
- Carefully remove the dust from the working parts with the long-handled brush.
- Remove the dirty oil from the carriage rails with the duster.
- Rub all the bright parts with a clean duster.
- Slightly oil the carriage rails.
- Clean the type with the type-cleaning brush, occasionally using a spirit.
- Mention 5 ways of caring for the typewriter.
Sub-Topic 2: CARE OF THE COMPUTER.
- Clean the visible parts of the computer to ensure there is no dust or particles that can enter the machine.
- Clean the disk drives.
- Shut down the computer properly after use to avoid damage to your system and loss of documents.
- Provide adequate electrical supply for the computer.
- Use the right furniture, both table and chair for maximum use of the machine.
- Do not bring food items near the computer.
- Do not touch the exposed part of the disk.
- Do not plug your computer to a line that has other high electricity consuming items like refrigerator, water heater etc.
- Cover your computer system when not in use to prevent dust.
- Provide air conditioner for the computer.
- Consult a computer engineer in case of any fault.
- Itemize 5 ways to care for the computer.
Nelson Business Studies Workbook 1, pages 69 and 70.
TOPIC: GETTING READY TO KEYBOARD.
Content: (i). International paper sizes used in keyboarding.
(ii) The keyboard rows: top, upper, home, nottem.
(iii) Divisions of the keyboard: left hand side, right hand side.
Sub-Topic 1: INTERNATIONAL PAPER SIZES USED IN KEYBOARDING.
The standard paper sizes used in offices are known as the ‘A’ series or ‘ISO’ papers. These paper sizes are used for various tasks depending on the length of the work. The following are some of the more popular sizes of paper:
- A1 paper: All other paper sizes can be obtained from A1. We can get two A2 papers from it. It measures 841mm by 594mm.
- A2 paper: This is gotten when an A1 paper is folded twice. One-half of the folds are an A2 paper and its size is 420mm by 594mm.
- A3 paper: Its size is 420mm by 297mm. If folded once, each half becomes an A4 paper.
- A4 paper: an A4 paper is used for lengthy memoranda and letters, specifications, reports and literary works. If an A4 is folded twice, each half becomes an A5 paper. Its size is 210mm by 297mm.
- A5 paper: It is used for short memoranda, short letters and short advertisements. When an A5 paper is used sideways, it becomes A5 landscape but when used with the shorter side up, it becomes A5 portrait. Two A6 can be gotten from A5. It measures 210mm by 148mm.
- A6 paper: It is used for post cards and invitation cards. If an A6 is folded once, one-half becomes A7.Its size is 105mm by 148mm.
- A7 paper: It is used for business slips\cards and complimentary cards.
The traditional paper sizes are foolscap, quarto, sixmo, memo, octavo, brief and draft.
- Explain the following paper sizes: A3, A4, A5, A6, and A7.
Sub-Topic 2: THE KEYBOARD ROWS (TOP, UPPER, HOME AND NOTTEM).
The keyboard rows are: top row, upper row, home keys row and nottem row.
- Top row: this row consists Arabic numerals from 1 to 0, hyphen and equal to keys. On the top of this numbers are signs; other characters may appear depending on the type of machine. These characters are depressed with the aid of the shift key.
- Upper Row: This row is also known as the second row. It contains the following alphabets: q, w, e, r, t, y, u, i, o, p. At the depression of the shift key, the capital letter of this character will be typed.
- Home Key Rows: This row consist of a, s, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, when you depress the shift key the capital letter will show on the typing sheet.
- Nottem Row: It is also known as the bottom row or the third row key. It consist z, x, c, v, b, n, m, comma(,) and full stop(.) keys. When the shift key is depressed, these characters will appear in capital letter or upper case character.
DIVISIONS OF THE KEYBOARD
The keyboard is divided into two:
- The left hand side
The right hand side.
The left hand is used to depress a, s, d, f and g on the home row, while the right hand is used to depress (;, l, k, j, h) on the same row.
- Mention the four keyboard rows.
Explain the division of the keyboard.
Assignment: Nelson Business Studies for JSS workbook 1, pages 71 and 72.
Activity: Practice the insertion and removal of paper from the typewriter.
Topic: GETTING READY TO KEYBOARD
Content: 1. Correct finger position on keys.
- Correct paper insertion and removal in/from typewriter.
- Setting margins and line space regulator.
- Type faces on a typewriter: pica, elite.
Sub-Topic 1: (i) Correct finger position on keys.
(ii) Correct paper insertion and removal in/from the typewriter.
CORRECT FINGER POSITION ON KEYS.
- To type effectively and efficiently, one has to sit comfortably; with the body erect shoulders square and the foot flatly placed on the floor with one foot slightly in front of the other.
- Relax and avoid all physical tension.
- Hands and knuckles to elbows should be in a straight line and the fingers should be well bent. Elbows should be kept loosely near your sides.
- The two little fingers of the left and right hand should be placed on the guide keys: (a & 😉 respectively.
- The other fingers should be placed on the remaining home keys(s, d, f on the left and l, k, j on the right) except the left and right thumb which is used to depress the space bar.
- All other keys can be located from the home keys and the fingers should return to the home keys.
- Keys should be struck sharply and lightly without looking at the keyboard.
- The copy should be placed on the right hand side of the typewriter.
CORRECT PAPER INSERTION INTO THE TYPEWRITER:
To insert paper correctly into the typewriter, the following steps should to be taken:
- Raise the paper bail.
- Get a typing sheet and a backing sheet of equal size and make sure the backing sheet is facing you.
- Drop them between the platen the paper guide and feed rollers with its left-hand edge against the paper guide.
- With the right hand, turn the platen knob clockwise quickly until the paper reaches the required position in front of the platen.
- Make sure the paper guide aligns with zero of the carriage scale.
- Pull the paper release lever and arrange the paper if the paper is not straight across the platen.
- Lower the paper bail and adjust the grips to press against the left and right hand edges of the paper so as to hold it firmly against the platen.
REMOVAL OF THE PAPER FROM THE TYPEWRITER
- Raise the paper bail.
- Pull forward the paper release lever using the right hand and remove the paper with the left hand.
- Return the paper bail and paper release lever to their normal positions.
- Always remove the paper in this way.
- Explain how paper can be insertion of paper into the typewriter.
- State how paper can be removed from the typewriter after a period of typing.
Sub-Topic 2: SETTING MARGINS AND LINE SPACE REGULATOR
The following are steps to setting margins on a paper:
- A left margin stop should be set at 10 for pica or 20 for elite and a right margin stop at 75 for pica or 85 for elite unless otherwise instructed.
- Insert your paper into the machine.
- Ensure that the left edge of the paper is aligned with the printing point. This is done by moving the carriage towards it.
- Count the required number of margin by moving the carriage with the aid of the space bar and place the left margin stop there.
- To set the right margin, use the backspacer to count the desired number of measurement and place the right margin stop there.
- You can begin to type.
The line space regulator controls the distance between the lines. It can be adjusted for:
- Single or one-line spacing.
- Double or two-line spacing.
- Treble-line spacing (with half-spacing on modern machines).
- Before beginning to type, set the regulator for the required spacing and, when returning the carriage in order to start a fresh line, strike the line-space lever sharply.
- Exercises should be typed in single-line spacing unless otherwise instructed so that mistakes can be readily seen.
- A double-line space should generally be created between exercises or portions of an exercise.
TYPE-FACES ON THE TYPEWRITER
There are two commonly used typefaces in keyboarding. They are called: I pica ii elite.
The pica typeface is a measure of type size. With pica, ten (10) letters can be typed to 1 inch or about 25mm .Ten letters in pica represent twelve letters in elite. This typeface has a bold character.
The elite typeface is a size of printing type that has twelve(12) letters or spaces to 1 inch. The character of elite typeface is usually small.
- Explain how to set margin and line space on the typewriter.
- ……………..and ……………. are used to set the line space and margin respectively.
- Mention the two typefaces we have.
Nelson Business Studies for JSS workbook 1,pages 71 and 72.
Reading Assignment: Nelson Business Studies for Junior Secondary Schools, bk. 1 published jointly by Nigeria Educational Research and Development.
- To make more than one copy with the typewriter you need ………. Paper. A. backing b. carbon c. copy d. foil e. telephone
- Number 2 in the line space regulator means that the document should be typed in …………line spacing. a. single b. double c. treble d. triple e. half
- These are correct sitting position in typing EXCEPT …….. a. back supported by chair b. elbows slightly out c. eyes on the copy d. fingers curved over the home keys e. legs crossed under the chair.
- The two major characters of typewriter is ……and …. A. elight and pica b. elote and pica c. pica and elite d. pika and elight e. pica and elete.
- Before inserting your typing paper into the machine, the paper guide must be set on ……… a. 0 b. 5 c. 10 d. 15 e. 20
- In correct sitting position, the fingers should be ……….. on the home keys. A. curved b. flat c. placed d. raised e. straight.
- Which of the following is used to prevent damage to the cylinder/platen? A. backing sheet b. carbon paper c. foil paper d. cellophane paper e. textbook.
- The best way of maintaining the typewriter is to ….. and ……it a. clean, cover, spray b. clean, lock, cover c. clean, lock, spray d. lock, cover, type e. lock, type, spray.
- The pica typeface is …………a. bold b. curved c. heavy d. moderate e. small.
- A pica typewriter has ………… character to 25mm.a. 25 b. 24 c. 15 d. 12 e. 10.
Topic: LEARNING THE KEYBOARD.
CONTENT: (i) Correct finger position on the home keys.
(ii) Correct finger movement on the home keys.
(iii) Correct ways for positions on the: Home Row, Upper Row, and Top Row.
(iv) Correct finger position and movement for special characters and figures.
Sub-Topic 1: Correct finger position on the home keys. Correct finger movement on the home keys.
CORRECT FINGER POSITION ON THE HOME KEYS.
The four fingers excluding the thumb of the left hand are placed on “asdf” while the four fingers of the right hand are placed on”;lkj”. It is from here that the fingers move up and down the entire keyboard. “asdf and ;lkj” are therefore called home keys. First of all, master the keyboard to know the positions of the keys, and then type without looking at the keyboard but the copy.
CORRECT FINGER MOVEMENT ON THE HOME KEYS.
After placing the fingers on the home keys, the fingers should strike a key at a time to avoid key jam. The two little fingers are used to strike the guide keys (a & ;). The remaining fingers on the left except the left and right thumb are used to strike “sdf” while the rest fingers on the right hand are used to strike “lkj”.
Activity: practice exercise 1 from Walmsley’s Commercial Typewriting by Aileen M Prince
Sub-Topic 2: CORRECT WAYS FOR POSITIONS ON THE: HOME ROW, UPPER ROW, TOP ROW.
THE HOME ROW
The remaining keys (letter) on the home row are” g, h”. The third and the fourth fingers are used to strike these keys. The f finger strikes g while the j finger strikes h. The fingers should be returned immediately after striking the keys.
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4
Note: 1 represent the index finger, 2 represent the middle finger, 3 represent the ring finger and 4 stands for the little finger.
Activity: practice exercises 2, 3, and 4 from Walmsley’s Commercial Typewriting by Aileen M Prince
THE UPPER ROW/THE SECOND ROW
When the correct position at the machine has been taken up and the fingers have been placed on the home keys, the keys of the second row can be operated and memorized. They are in a position above and slightly to the left of their corresponding keys in the second row. In order to associate correctly the keys of the second and third rows, the first practice will be to reach from the home keys to the third row. With the little finger of the left hand strike the guide key a. With the same finger reach upwards and slightly to the left to strike the q key, and then return the finger to the second row and again strike the key for a. The movement should be repeated several times, with a space between each series of letters.
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4
4 3 2 2 3
Note: 1 represent the index finger, 2 represent the middle finger, 3 represent the ring finger and 4 stands for the little finger.
Activity: practice exercise 10
frf ftf juj jyj frf ftf juj jyj;
frf ftf juj jyj frf ftf juj jyj;
red get yes hug rid yet dye due;
her ate say hue sir fit fly hut;
are the hay fur rat its day rue;
THE TOP ROW
Figures play one of the most important parts in typewriting. Since numerical errors in any piece of typewritten work may cause much harm, therefore maximum concentration on the correct fingering in the very early stages of training is very important to attain that degree of efficiency required.
However, this section of the keyboard training mastery deals with the row of keys which introduces the Arabic numerals (1 to 0) and the hyphen.
ACTIVITY: Practice exercises 42 and 43 from Walmsley’s Commercial Typewriting by Aileen M Prince
Correct finger position and movement for special characters and figures.
The special characters and figures are located on the top row. To effectively type these keys, one needs to associate them with the home and the third row. To type the special characters, depress the shift key.
Activity: practice exercises 44 to 46 from Walmsley’s Commercial Typewriting by Aileen M Prince.
‘Walmsley’s Commercial Typewriting’ Eighth Edition by Aileen M Prince
Paragon Typewriting bk1 by Robert Esene.
Nelson Business Studies for Junior Secondary Schools, bk. 1 published jointly by Nigeria Educational Research and Development.
WEEK 11. Revision.
WEEK 12. Examination.
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