SECOND TERM E-LEARNING NOTES
JS 1 (BASIC 7)
SUBJECT: BASIC SCIENCE
SCHEME OF WORK
1. Disease prevention: Clean water
2. Prevention of STI’s, HIV\AIDS.
3. Drug Abuse/Addiction/misuse and sources of drugs
4. The earth in space.
5. Description of eclipse, climate and seasons.
7. Classification of matter.
8. Plants and animals.
9. Characteristics of living things.
10. Activities of living things.
11. Revision for the term.
TOPIC: Disease Prevention
-Water borne diseases; cholera, diarrhea, typhoid.
-Sources of clean water
-Water treatment processes
-Immunization against human diseases
Water borne diseases
Diseases caused by unclean (dirty) water are called water borne diseases. The following are some of the water borne diseases.
- CHOLERA: It is caused by harmful bacteria that inflame the intestine and cause extreme diarrhea. Cholera is the most common diseases that can be contacted by drinking unclean water.
The symptom of cholera is frequent stooling with vomiting which lead to dehydration. Cholera can be prevented by boiling water before drinking.
2. DYSENTRY: It can be caused by a one-celled animal called
Amoeba or by certain bacteria.
3. DIARRHOEA: the symptom of diarrhea is frequent stooling which leads to dehydration, abdominal pains, bloating of the belly, feverish conditions and cramps. To prevent diarrhea, the food we eat and our drinking water should be hygienic.
4. TYPHOID: It is caused by bacteria called salmolena typhi. Symptoms of typhoid fever manifest within three weeks of infection.
Symptoms include feeling cold, serious headache, running stomach,
Constipation, enlarged liver and spleen and high fever. Typhoid fever could be prevented by boiling water before drinking, hygienic handling of food and being immunized against the diseases.
Sources of clean water.
1 Pipe-borne water
2 Spring water.
3 Rain water
4 Deep well water
Mention three borne diseases.
List the sources of clean water.
Sub-topic: 2: Water treatment processes
FILTERATION: – This is the process of removing impurities i.e. mud, soil, leaves from water. Filter paper is used in the laboratory while filter beds are used at water co-operations.
CHLORINATION: – Chlorine gas is added to water to kill bacteria. It is harmless to human beings. It is also used to purify the water in swimming pools.
DISTILLATION: – This is a process of obtaining pure water from impure water by using an apparatus called Lie Bib Condenser.
DESALINATION: – This is the process of taking away salt from sea water.
FLOCCULATION: This is the dissolution and stirring of alum in water to make tiny solid particles suspended in water to stick together (flocculate).
Advantages of using pipe-borne water
- It is clean and colourless.
- It is odourless.
it is tasteless.
It is conveniently available in the home.
It is treated to kill disease-causing living organisms.
Suspended matter has been removed.
Immunization is a method of stimulating resistance against specific diseasesin the human body using microorganisms (bacteria or viruses) that have been modified or killed. It is also called vaccination or inoculation. The system in the body that keeps disease-causing organisms from entering our body is called Immune system. Immunization of the child begins during pregnancy. The deadly diseases that require immunization are Polio, chickenpox, Pneumonia, measles, whooping cough, hepatitis, malaria, tuberculosis, cholera, tetanus diphtheria etc.
|| Type of vaccine
||No. of time given
||Minimum interval between age
||Diphthera, whooping cough, tetanus
Where to get immunization is a reputable hospital e. g government hospital around you.
- Name three diseases that are caused by unclean water
- What are anti-bodies? Explain how they work
- list all the methods of purifying unclean water
- What is immunization?
Reading assignment: read basic science made easy by F.I. Kehinde pages 48-55.
1. List examples of diseases immunization can prevent.
2. Write down the time table for various immunizations.
Topic: Prevention of STI’S, HIV/AIDS.
Content: 1. Definition of STI’s HIV\AIDS
- Safe age for reproduction.
Abstinence, responsible sexual behavior
Avoid use of unscreened blood, injection, needles and clippers.
Sub-Topic 1: Definition of STI’s HIV\AIDS.STI’S means sexually transmitted infections. These are diseases that can be contracted through sexual activities. Examples include gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes, Chlamydia, Candida infections and HIV and AIDS.
Aids is a very dangerous disease. The full meaning of AIDS is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. An aid is caused by a virus called Human Immune deficiency Virus (HIV). HIV-AIDS has no cure yet. Human body has an Immune defense system which protects our bodies against attacks from diseases. The virus (HIV) damages this Immune defense system.
When the virus is in the body; it is said to be HIV positive and that is what develops to HIV-AIDS. When this happens, the person’s body will not be able to fight any other diseases (such as fever, cough, tuberculosis, pneumonia etc) that attack person. The person will die after some time. HIV-AIDS can affect anybody no matter the age.
Safe age for reproduction:
The safe age for reproduction is when somebody is fully matured and ready to take responsibilities. You have to answer the following questions:
- Are you matured enough, physically, socially and emotionally?
Have you finished schooling?
Do you have a good job to take care of the family you are about to start raising up?
- What are sexually transmitted diseases?
What is the full meaning of HIV and AIDS?
Examples of STI are? (3 Examples)
STI fully means
Sub-topic 2: Prevention of HIV\AIDS and STI’s
Signs of HIV\AIDS, how to detect it, how it can be transferred, and prevention of HIV\AIDS and STI’s.
Signs of AIDS
- Unexpected weight loss
- Getting tired easily
- Fever that is lasting more than one month.
- Diarrhea which is longer than one man
- Cold sores (wounds) all over the body
- Swollen glands at two or more places on the body for more than three months
- Sweating profusely.
How to detect HIV:
It can only be detected through blood test. It does not show in face or body, until it develops into AIDS. It can be passed from man to woman or woman to man.
Ways through which AIDS can be transferred:
- Through sexual intercourse
- Transfusion of unscreened blood
- Contaminated injection needles and syringes, razor blades, knife and other sharp objects.
- Through contaminated instrument during ear piercing, circumcision and putting of tribal marks
- Pregnant mothers to unborn babies
Prevention of STI’s, HIV-AIDS:
I. Abstinence from sex when you are not married
II. Husbands and wives should be faithful to each other
III. Use sterilized clippers, needles and injections
IV. Screen the blood vary well before transfusion or passing to the
body of a sick person. Safe age for reproduction is full adult.
V. Boys and girls should wait till time of marriage before having sex.
VI. Do not have boy or girl friend before marriage.
- What are antibodies and what are their functions?
- What are ways of preventing STI and HIV
- Name three diseases that are caused by contact with human waste and dirty water.
- How can you detect HIV-AIDS
- What is the function of the body immune defense system?
STAN pages 94-95 and basic science made easy by Kehinde pages 56-59.
Discuss the consequences of irresponsible sexual behavior among youths.
Topic: Drug Abuse/Addiction/Misuse
Content: 1. Meaning of Drugs.
- Uses of drug
Side effects of drugs.
4. Drugs\ substances abuse.
- Misuse of drugs
Other substances abuse
Sub-Topic 1: Meaning of drug:.
Drugs can be defined as any substance used to make medicine to cure disease and ailment or any substance which when introduced in to the body cures the body illness.
Examples of drugs are: –
- Kola nut
There are two types of drugs
- Common drugs
- Hard hard drugs
Uses of Drugs
- Drug can be used for medical purpose.
- It is used to reduce weight
- It is used to reduce pain
- It is used to reduce sleep
- It is used as stimulant
- It is used to cure illness.
SUB-TOPIC 2 Side effects of drugs.
When drugs are used in wrong way, they can lead to the following effects.
- They weaken the body
- They shorten one’s life span
- They can damage the internal organs of the body
- They can bring about lack of consecration
- They damage the brain
- They bring about irregular breathing
- They result in economical wastage.
Drugs are divided into two major ones, these are
I- Common drugs
II- Hard drugs – e.g. Cocaine, heroine
Classification of drugs
I Narcotics e. g Opium
II Sedatives and Hypnotics e .g Barbiturates
III Tranquilizers e. g Valium, Librum.
IV Hallucinogens e. g LSD (Lysergic acid diethyamide) and Marijuana.
V Stimulants e .g Amphetamine, Cocaine,
What is Drug Abuse?
Drug Abuse is the taking of medically prescribed drugs inappropriately.
How drugs can be abused.
- Taking the prescribed drugs for a purpose other than that which it was intended
- Taking a dosage other than the recommended.
- Taking drugs to induce sleep without prescription from a qualified medical doctor
- Taking drugs to gain confidence or boldness
- Taking drugs to attain full sexual satisfaction without prescription.
- Sharing a prescribed drug with other people
- Taking drugs that are not prescribed by Doctors.
- Taking of Expired drugs ignorantly.
Misuse of drugs
Some athletics use drugs in form of stimulants
It is also used as muscle builder.
It is also used to enhance one’s performances in competition.
Other substances abused include:
Tea, alcohol, coffee, kola nuts, tobacco, aspirin and other pain killers.
Alcohol affects the body first making you excited, then making you depressed. The other substances affect the body by causing excitement and preventing sleep.
1.. Define drug
- Mention some drugs you know
What are the uses of drug?
Kindly write out some side effects of drugs
Read Basic Science Made Easy by F.I. Kehinde pages 60-63. Read STAN pages 98-99.
- What are drugs?
State the medical uses of two drugs.
TOPIC: The earth in space
Content: 1. The solar system.
- Rotation, evolution of the earth and moon.
The place beyond the atmosphere which is extremely large
Is called space.
Sub-Topic 1: The Solar System
The planet earth, on which we live, is moving through space all the time. It is going round the sun. In doing this it carries us all through space. The earth travels through the space but we do not realize this because the air around the earth is carried along with it. The sun together with all the bodies which revolves round it makes up the solar system. The solar system consists of the sun, nine planets, 32 moons which revolve round some of the planets, many comets and asteroids.
The planets are:
- Define the solar system?
- List the nine planets.
Sub-topic 2: Rotation, evolution of the earth and moon.
Rotation of the Earth:
The earth rotates about an axis through the north and south poles. As the earth rotates different parts of its surface come into the light from the sun. The area that
is receiving light from the sun has day, and that which is away from the sun has night. The time it takes to rotate round its own axis is one day (24 hours).
Rotation of the Moon:
The moon is a satellite of the earth and revolves round it once in about 29 days. Five phases occur during the rotation of the moon. They are as follows:
- New moon
- Quarter moon
- Half moon
- Three quarter moon
- Full moon.
- Why is moon referred to as a satellite?
- What happens during the rotation of the earth?
- State the types of phases you can see when you observe the moon.
- In which of the planets do you live?
- What is space?
- Define the term satellite.
Read basic science made easy pages 98-103 and Stan pages 122,123,133.
Topic: Description of Eclipse, climate and seasons.
Content: 1. Eclipse
2 Climate and the Seasons.
Sub-Topic 1: Eclipse
Sun is a large luminous body from which light shines on to the earth and the moon. Because of the movement of the earth and the moon, it is possible for one to shield (Eclipse) the other from the sun.
There are three types of eclipse:
- An eclipse of the moon: this is formed when the earth comes between the sun and the moon; the moon is in the shadow of the earth.
An eclipse of the sun: This is formed when the moon passes between the earth and the sun, the shadow of the moon falls on parts of the earth.
Annular eclipse: A times when the moon is so far away from the earth that no region of total shadow falls on the earth. The moon is then observed against the circular sun.
Annular Eclipse Eclipse of the sun
- What is eclipse of the moon?
- Explain the eclipse of the sun
Sub Topic 2: Climate and season.
Climate: This is the average condition of the weather of a place over a long period of time. Elements of climate are:
The revolving of the earth about the sun causes the season. The time it takes to go once round the sun is a year (365 ¼ days)
Types of Seasons:
Autum, winter, spring and summer. These four seasons are not well pronounced in the tropics. However, we have the rainy and dry seasons as it is in Nigeria.
- Mention the season you experience in your country
- Define climate and list the elements of climate.
- Explain what is meant by eclipse
Read basic science made easy pages 68-69 and Stan pages 123-129.
- Explain the season of the year in your country.
Write the names of the nine planets in order of their average distance
From the sun.
CONTENT: 1. Meaning of matter
- Identification of matter.
Sub-Topic 1: Meaning of matter
Matter is anything in nature that has mass and occupies space. Stone, paper, plant, air, water, rubber etc. are made up of matter. Matter is made up of small particles called atoms.
- What is a matter?
- Explain an experiment to show that particles move from one to another
Sub-topic 2: Identification of matter
Matter is classified into solid, liquid, and gas. All living and non-living things are made up of matter. It means that everything that you can see, touch, smell, breathe or eat is made up of matter.
- How could you explain why some substances dissolve in water and others do not?
- Why is there a gurgling sound when you empty a bottle full of liquid?
- Suggest a way of transferring air from one container to another.
Read basic science made easy pages 70-71.
What is matter made up of?
Explain the term diffusion.
TOPIC: CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER
CONTENT 1: States of matter
State of Matter:
Matter can be classified into the following group:
- Living and non-living things
- Using state of matter
- Using physical criteria like size, weight, texture, shape, color, smell, taste.
There are three states of matter which are solid, liquid and gas.
The particles of solid are arranged in an orderly manner. A strong intermolecular force holds the particles together. The particles are very much close together. Solids have definite shapes, volume and fixed mass. Examples of solid are salt, sugar, ice-block; stone e.t.c. solid undergoes translational motion and oscillatory motion.
The particles of a liquid are not very close together. Liquid particles are a bit free to move about because of the moderate intermolecular force between particles. Liquid does not have a definite shape but takes the shape of the container. Liquid are fluid which flows or diffuse in all directions. Examples are water, blood, ink, urine. Liquid have definite volume, fixed mass. Liquid cannot be compressed or squeezed into a smaller space. Liquids undergo three kinds of motion, vibration, rotational and translational.
The particles of gas are very far apart because of the very weak intermolecular force holding the particles. They move about freely at great speed. Gases have no definite shape, volume but have fixed mass. Gases can be compressed. Examples of gases are air, ammonia, steam, oxygen e.t.c.
Change of state
When solid water [ice] is heated, its particles move faster and break away from the ordered arrangement. The solid melts to become a liquid. The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which solid changes to liquid. The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which liquid changes to gas.
Change of state in water
- List all the states of matter you know
- How will you identify matter?
3 Differentiate between solid and liquid.
Read basic science made easy by Kehinde pages 71-75.
- How can we change a solid to liquid?
What is boiling point?
List three properties each of solids liquids and gases.
TOPIC: LIVING THINGS [PLANTS AND ANIMALS]
CONTENT: 1. Examples of plants and animals
- Characteristics of plant and animals
Uses/importance of plants and animals
Food, Medicine, Shelter
Sub-Topic1: Examples of plants and animals.
The living things can be divided into plants and animals. Toad, housefly, ostrich, fish are examples of animals. Maize plant, grass, yam, hibiscus are examples of plants.
The characteristics of living things are as follows: MR NIGERCLAD
- Movement: Movement is a change in position .Animals move from place to place. Plant only moves towards the light.
- Respiration :This is the release of energy as a result of breakdown of food in the body
- Nutrition/Feeding: Food is a substance which when taken provides energy or materials for building the body. Plant and animals feed in order to get energy to carry out their daily activities and also to grow.
- Growth: Growth is the increase in size as a result of formation of new cells and increase of the new cells .All living things grow as they become older.
- Irritability/Sensitivity: This is the ability to respond to change in the environment. All living things respond to changes in the environment.
- Reproduction: all living things can reproduce their own kind/species.
- Excretion: the removal of metabolic waste products from the body is called excretion
- Adaptation: This is the way living things get used to their various environments.
- Competition: This is the ability of living things to struggle for all the necessities of life in order to survive in their various environments. Plants and animals compete for food.
10. Life span/ Death: All living things must die because they have limited period of existence.
Sub-Topic 2: Uses/Importance of plants and animals.
Plants and animals can be used for the following purposes.
Uses of plants
- Plants provides food such as vegetables, fruits, tuber, leaves etc for man and animals’
Provision of materials for shelter e. g timber for construction of houses.
Medicine: plants are used in the production of drug plant which is used as herb in treating diseases.
Plant is used to beautify our environment.
Plant leaves serve as wind break and also use to control soil erosion
Plants remove carbon-dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis and give out oxygen.
It serves as source of income to the people and the nation.
Uses of animals
- Animals serve as food for man.
Some animals are used as beasts of burden e .g donkeys and camels
Some animals are used as means of transportation e. g horses and camels.
Animal such as dogs is used for security.
5 It also serves as source of income.
- Mention five examples of plant.
- What are the uses of plants and animals?
- List all the characteristics of plants and animals.
Read basic science made easy by F.I. Kehinde pages 76-84.
1. Mention names of five plants and five animals.
2. List four important uses of plants and animals to human beings.
TOPIC: Characteristics of living things.
Content: 1.Charateristics of Living Things
- Differences between plants and animals.
Sub-Topic 1: Characteristics of Living Things
Living things can move.
Living things can reproduce.
Living things can feed.
Living things can excrete.
Living things can respire.
Living things can grow.
Living things can be sensitive to stimulus.
Living things can adapt to their environment
Sub-Topic 2: Differences between Plants and Animals
|Animals move freely from one place to another
Animal have different colours
Animals have definite shape.
They feed on already prepared food
Animals respond to stimuli very quickly.
Animal have sense organs e. g eye, Nose etc.
Animals have well developed excretory organs for removing metabolic waste.
|Do not move freely.
Most animals are green due to chlorophyll
Plants do not have definite shape.
They produce their own food through photosynthesis.
Plants respond to stimuli very slowly.
Plants do not have sense organ.
They do not have excretory organs.
Cell is the basic unit of life. It is the structural and functional unit of life. Cells may exist as individual living organisms (unicellular organisms) or as group of cells (multicellular organisms).
Types of cells
- Animal cell
2 .Plant cell
|Plant and Animal cells
- Write five differences between plants and animals
- State the characteristics of living things.
Read basic science made easy by F.I. Kehinde pages 80-81.
Write ten differences between plants and animals.
TOPIC: Activities of living things
CONTENT: 1. Types e.g. movement; feeding, reproduction etc.
- .Associated organs;
Purpose/importance of the activities.
Sub-Topic 1: Movement
Types of movement
[i]Active movement: This occurs when a living thing moves by its own energy
[ii] Passive movement: This occurs when a living thing is carried by wind or water or animals from one place to another.
[iii] Bending movement: This occurs in plants which bend towards light, water or gravity.
|Method of movement
||Frog, toad, monkey,
||Fore and hind limbs
||Man, leopard, lion.
||Snake, lizard, crocodile
||Belly ,fore and hind limbs.
||Birds, bats, insects(butterfly)
||Bending of stem toward light
||Goats, dog, horse, ants,
||Fore and hind limbs
||Snakes and some worms
||Belly, fore and hind limbs
Purpose of movement
[i] To search for food.
[i] To escape from dangers and enemies.
[iii] To respond to changes in the environment.
[iv] To seek reproductive mates or sites
Types of movement in plants are phototropism; movement towards light. Geotropism is the movement towards gravity.
Mode of feeding:
1. Authotrophic mode of feeding: This is found in green plants .Light energy is trapped by green plants and combined with inorganic materials (CO2) to produce food.eg photosynthesis.
2. Heterotrophic mode of feeding: This is found mainly in animals .They are unable to produce their own food hence depends on already manufactured solid food which must be digested and absorbed. Under this mode of feeding, organisms (animals) can be classified according to their feeding habits.
A] Herbivorous: These are the animals that feed mainly on plants. These are called ruminants. Examples are goats sheep and cattle.
B] Carnivorous animals: These are animals that feed mainly on flesh. Examples are lion, cat and tiger.
C] Omnivorous animals: These are animals that can feed on both plants and animals materials e. g man.
Types of reproduction:
- Asexual reproduction:
- Sexual reproduction.
[a] In plant
- Sexual reproduction: This is the reproduction of plant through seeds.
- Asexual reproduction: This is the process by which plant reproduces itself through vegetative means. This method includes cutting, layering, budding and grafting.
Sexual reproduction: This is the fusion of male and female reproductive organs together .It is the only means of reproduction in animals.
Types of growth:
1. Apical is the growth that involves growing tip of plant, growing tall from time to time.
2. Intercalary is a type of growth that involves every part of the body growing at the same time.
Types of respiration
1. Aerobic respiration oxygen is used to liberate energy.
Anaerobic respiration involves a chemical process common with organisms like bacteria.
- In a tabular form highlight the types of movement in animals.
Explain the two types of growth in living things
||Muscles and the skeletal system, shoot (phototropism), root (geotropism)
||Nose, lungs, heart, stomata, lenticels
||Mouth, stomach, intestines, leaves, root, stems.
||Nervous system, leaves
||Bones, muscles, shoots, roots, stem
||Skin, kidney, stomach, lenticels
||Male and female reproductive organs, Flowers, buds.
Purpose/importance of the activities
Movement: It enables plants and animal to search for food. It enables animals to change position.
Respiration: (Wastes product) carbon (IV) oxide gets rid of the body systems.
Nutrition: this enables plants and animals to get energy for their daily activities. This enables plant and animal to grow.
Irritability: it enables plants and animals to be sensitive to changes in their environment.
Growth: The food eaten is used to increase size and weight of plants and animals.
Excretion: All the wastes product are eliminated from the body system during excretion.
Reproduction: Plants and animals are able to bring forth young ones like themselves. This brings about increase in population .It is for continuity of life.
- How many types of movement do you know in plant?
- Mention the importance of the activities in living things.
Read Stan pages 104-108.
- Mention the activities of living things.
State the purpose of the activities mentioned above.
State reasons why you will group Human Being as special animal.
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